LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
jfc 3. liqajrigljt !fov.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
GENERAL HERKIMER AT ORISKANY
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
STORIES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
DARING DEEDS OF THE
REVISED AND ADAPTED FROM
HENRY C. WATSON
AUTHOR OF " NOBLE DEEDS OF OUR FATHERS AS TOLD BY OLD SOLDIERS OF THE
REVOLUTION GATHERED AROUND THE OLD BELL OF INDEPENDENCE "
LEE AND SHEPARD Publishers
IO MILK STREET NEXT " THE OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE "
CHARLES T. DILLINGHAM
NEW YORK 718 AND 720 BROADWAY
Copyright, 1888, by Lee and Shepard.
All rights res e wed.
The Boston Tea Party.
In explanation of the plan of this work, it may be
stated that such an occasion as that upon which the
veterans met was especially adapted to awaken recol-
lections of the struggle for Independence. A Fourth-
of-July festival in the old rendezvous of the Boston
Tea-Party is surely well calculated to excite patriotic
feeling ; and when to those who participated in the
festival are added a number of the veterans of the War
of Independence, filled with glorious recollections, the
effect is to turn the mind to the admiration and venera-
tion of the men and deeds of the " trying time."
No event excites more interest among Americans
than the destruction of the tea in Boston Harbor.
Then and there the unconquerable resolution of
freemen was first made apparent to the obstinate
oppressors of our infant country. Yet, until of late
years, the history of the affair was very imperfectly
known, and the names of men who participated in
it are scarcely mentioned. In these pages will be
found a faithful account of this daring exploit ; and,
in connection with the other narratives, it is hoped
it will kindle in the breasts of young readers an
enthusiasm for liberty. The anecdotes of personal
daring, the descriptions of men and of places, the
fragments of history and the accounts of campaigns
which follow the story of the "Tea-Party," cannot fail
to interest and instruct youthful readers, and must
awaken a desire to learn more of the events which
shaped the growth of our nation. As an auxiliary to
the study of United States History, such reading is
always entertaining and profitable.
Fourth of July 7
The Lebanon Liberty Club 12
The Skirmish at Lexington 22
The Fight at Concord 29
The Fifer's Story . . . .44
Arnold's Expedition , 47
The Expedition against Ticonderoga 68
Gen. Putnam's Escape , 76
The Battle of Bennington ....... 82
The Capture of Gen. Sullivan 98
The Patriotism of Mrs. Borden ...... 108
The Escape of Capt. Plunkett . . . . . . . no
The Treason of Rugsdale .114
Cruelty of Tarleton . ... 126
Lee's Legion 135
The Attack on Gen. Wayne 152
The Mutiny at Morristown - . 1 55
The Treason of Bettys 167
The Battle of Bunker Hill . . . . . . .174
Exploits of Peter Francisco 183
The Exploit of Col. Allan M'Lean 187
The Adventure of Major Lee ...... 192
Gen. Daniel Morgan 205
The Battle of Oriskany . 210
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
FOURTH OF JULY
Those who have been associated in the performance
of any deed of valor or patriotism, ever feel attracted
to each other by an influence stronger and nobler than
that of friendship.
The daring patriots who joined in resistance to the
tyrannizing might of Britain were men pledged to die
rather than betray each other, and to maintain their
rights while they could lift the sword or aim the mus-
ket ; and that pledge made them look upon each other
in after-years, when the storm of war was hushed, and
security dwelt at the fireside, as brothers whom no
petty cause could sunder, nor ill report make foes.
These remarks apply, especially, to those who first
threw themselves into the breach, and resolved that, if
the British ministry should adopt such measures as the
Stamp Act, their execution should be resisted and be-
8 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
come difficult ; and if such measures were passed as the
Act taxing tea, coffee, and the comforts of life, that the
tea should never be landed, and thus prove a loss to its
The men who threw the tea into Boston Harbor were
patriots united by a sense that union was necessary for
the salvation of liberty ; and they were attracted to
each other by the same influence during the bloody
struggle which succeeded.
What wonder, then, that they loved to meet in after-
years, to wish each other health and happiness, and
chat over the stirring events in which they had partici-
pated, and to which their first bold deed was as the
spark to dry hay, kindling to a fierce blaze the ready
seeds of war ?
It was the Fourth of July in Boston. Throughout
the city which cradled the Revolution, the anniversary
of the birth of the free and happy United States of
America was celebrated with rejoicings unknown to
the shackled people of monarchical countries.
Meetings were held in various parts of the city,
patriotic speeches made, bells rung, cannons fired,
pistols, crackers, and fireworks of all descriptions dis-
charged, toasts drank, and festivities of all kinds
FOURTH OF JULY 9
The soldiers paraded the streets with fine bands dis-
coursing most excellent music, and followed by a large
.crowd. Bunker Hill was the scene of a large patriotic
meeting, and the events of the " trying time" were
again and again recounted with much enthusiasm.
But a more unusual and far more interesting meeting
occurred in Boston, about a quarter of a mile from the
wharf known ever since the commencement of the
Revolution as Griffin's Wharf. In the upper room of
an old and somewhat dilapidated tavern were assembled
a party of old and young men, — the representatives of
Three of the old men were the remaining members
of the famous Lebanon Club, — the first liberty club
formed in the Colonies, and the one which designed
and executed the project of destroying the tea at
They had come from various parts of the country,
upon agreement, to meet once more in the house where
the disguised members of the club had met on the
evening of the 16th of December, 1773.
The names of the old patriots were David Kinnison,
Adam Colson, and Lendall Pitts. Five other veterans
had joined the party by invitation, together with half a
dozen young men, who had arranged the meeting and
IO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
agreed to pay all expenses, with a view of passing the
Fourth of July in a novel and interesting manner.
A well-laden table extended the whole length of the
room, and flags, banners, and appropriate emblems and
devices were hung on the walls. There was no formal
organization, as at public festivals, no president elected,
and no list of toasts prepared. It was intended to be
a sociable gathering.
No band of well-arranged and harmonized instruments
appeared ; but old Jacob Brown and old Samuel Hanson,
a fifer -and a drummer of the Continental army, occa-
sionally stirred the hearts and fired the eyes of the
company with the music which had nerved the patriots
at Bunker Hill and Bennington.
Each of the veterans sat in an arm-chair at the table,
the young men being distributed among them so as to
wait upon them occasionally, and show them every
Mr. Kinnison, though not the oldest man of the com-
pany, looked as if he had seen the hardest service, and
received the hardest buffets of Time. His features
bespoke a strong and energetic mind, and his eye
was full of fire and activity. His hair was gray and
bushy, partly covering a large scar on his high fore-
head. He had evidently been a man of powerful
FOURTH OF JULY II
frame, but was now bent with the weight of years and
The other veterans appeared to be generally of the
same age, and to have seen hard toil and service. The
fifer was the most remarkable of the party. In spite of
his age and white hair, his puffed cheeks and the sly
twinkle of his eyes gave him a kind of jolly, frolicsome
appearance, which would indicate that age could not
chill the humor of his heart.
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB
When the company were fairly seated at the table,
Mr. Kinnison opened the conversation by asking the
young men if they had ever heard any account of the
Lebanon Liberty Club. They replied they had heard
of the club, but never any definite account.
"Well," said Mr. Kinnison, "I can tell you some-
thing about it. Mr. Pitts, Mr. Colson, and myself, were
members of a club consisting of seventeen men, living
at Lebanon, in Maine.
" Most of us were farmers. We knew what the folks
over the river were aiming at, and we knew that there
was no use of dallying about matters. Our rights were
to be untouched, or there must be a fight !
" So, you see, we Lebanon men resolved to form a
club, to consider what was to be done, and to do accord-
ingly. We hired a room in the tavern of Col. Gooding,
and held regular meetings at night. The colonel was
an American of the right color, but we kept our object
secret, not even letting him into it."
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB 13
" If it isn't too much trouble, Mr. Kinnison, we
should like you to tell us all about what the club had
to do with the tea-party, and how that affair was con-
ducted," said one of the young men, named Hand,
filling the veteran's plate.
"He can tell you much better than any one else,"
remarked Mr. Pitts. " I can vouch for the bold part he
took in it, and he has a better memory than the rest of
"No flattery, Pitts," returned Mr. Kinnison. "My
memory is bad enough ; and as for taking such a bold
part in that tea-party, it is all nonsense. If there was
a leader, you were the man. But I'll tell these young
men all I know of the affair, and what the Lebanon
Club had to do with it.
"Well, the seventeen men of our club determined,
whether we were aided or not, to destroy the tea which
the East India Company had sent to Boston. The plan
was soon formed, as it always is when men are deter-
mined to do a thing.
" We wanted no captain ; each man could command
for himself. We resolved to disguise ourselves in
Mohawk dresses, and carry such arms as would enable
us to sell our lives pretty dearly ; we also pledged our-
selves never to reveal the names of any of the party
14 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
while there was danger in it. We expected to have a
fight anyhow, and the first man who faltered was to be
thrown overboard with the tea.
" We came to Boston, and found the people ripe for
the deed. A great meeting was to be. held at the Old
South Meeting-House, and we concluded to wait and
see what would be done there.
" We lodged at this tavern, and held our councils up
in this room. Well, there was a tremendous meeting
at the Old South, and most of us were there to help to
keep up the excitement, and to push our plan if a
" Young Ouincy made a speech that stirred the
people, and made them ready for any thing which
would show their spirit. The people voted with one
voice that the tea should not be landed.
"We saw how things were going, came back to the
tavern, put on our Mohawk dresses, and returned to
the meeting. Pitts succeeded in getting into the
church just about dusk, and raising the war-whoop.
We answered outside. Then Pitts cried out, ' Boston
Harbor a tea-pot to-night ! ' "
"Ay," exclaimed Pitts, brandishing his knife above
his head, "and ' Hurrah for Griffin's Wharf ! ' "
"The crowd echoed 'Griffin's Wharf,'" continued
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB IS
Kinnison, " and hurried towards that place. Our men
joined together, returned to the tavern, got our mus-
kets and tomahawks, and collected about seventy men,
armed with axes and hatchets. Then we pushed for
the wharf where the East Indiamen, loaded with the
tea, were lying. Let me see ! — The ships were called
the ' Dartmouth,' the" —
"The 'Eleanor,' and the 'Beaver,'" prompted Colson.
"Ay, the 'Dartmouth,' the 'Eleanor,' and the
'Beaver,'" continued Kinnison. "You see, my mem-
ory is weak. Well, when we reached the wharf, there
was a crowd of people near it. It was a clear moon-
light night, and the British squadron was not more than
a quarter of a mile distant ; so, you see, there was a
"We didn't halt long. Pitts led the way on board
the 'Dartmouth,' and we followed, musket and toma-
hawk in hand. Nobody offered any show of defend-
ing the tea. We cut open the hatches, and some of
the men went down and passed up the chests, while
others cut them open, and emptied the stuff into the
"The crew of the vessel were afraid to stir in stop-
ping us, for we told them we would shoot the first man
who interfered. I tell you, there was quick work there.
16 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
When we had cleared that ship of the tea, we hurried
off to the others, Pitts still leading the way, and did
the same kind of work for them.
"The people began to crowd on the wharf, and some
of them came to help us. I guess there were about a
hundred and fifty of us on the third ship, all hard at
work passing up the chests, cutting them open, and
spilling the tea.
" Within two hours, about three hundred and fifty
chests of the tea were thus destroyed. The crowd
cheered us once in a while, and we knew we would have
friends enough if the redcoats attempted to attack us.
When we had emptied the last chest that could be
found, we gave three of the loudest cheers, and gained
" A drummer and fifer were ready (as Mr. Brown and
Mr. Hanson can inform you), and we formed a proces-
sion and marched up to this tavern. Here the crowd
gave our band of Mohawks cheer after cheer, and then
"But we didn't intend to end the night's work so
quietly. We had a supper prepared just where we are
now eating, and Josiah Ouincy and some other big
men came to join us. We made a night of it, I tell
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB 17
"Mr. Kinnison," said Mr. Colson, " there's one inci-
dent concerning that tea-party that has slipped your
memory. As our procession moved from the wharf
and passed the house of the Tory Coffin, Admiral Mon-
tague raised the window, and said, ' Ah, boys ! you have
had a fine evening for your Indian caper; but mind,
you've got to pay the fiddler yet ! '
" Pitts here shouted, ' Oh, never mind, never mind,
squire ! Just come out, if you please, and we'll settle
that bill in two minutes.' The people shouted, and the
admiral thought he had better put in his head in a
" That's true," remarked Kinnison. " Well, you see,
my memory is poor. Pitts would have mentioned it
but for his modesty."
"I recollect it well," said Pitts. "If that Tory
Coffin had shown his face that night, I wouldn't have
given three cents for his life."
" I think I would have had a slash at him," observed
Kinnison. " I felt as savage as a Mohawk on a war-
" I don't want to interrupt your eating, Brown and
Hanson," said Colson ; "but couldn't you stir us up a
little with the drum and fife ? "
"Ay," added young Hand, who seemed to be the
18 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
general mouthpiece of the younger portion of the com-
pany, " give us the air you played when you marched
up from Griffin's Wharf."
"No objection, " replied Hanson. "Come, Brown,
get out your whistle. There's a little music left in it
yet, I know."
The old fife was soon produced, and the drum also ;
and, moving their chairs a short distance from the
table, the veteran musicians struck up the stirring air
of the old Massachusetts Song of Liberty, once so
popular throughout the Colonies, and supposed to have
been written by the wife of Gen. Warren.
" Hurrah ! " exclaimed Hand, when the musicians had
concluded. "Three cheers for the music and the
musicians ! " and three cheers were given quite lustily
by the young men, and some of the old ones.
"I have a copy of that Song of Liberty," said
Hand. " Here it is, with the music. I'll sing it, and
you must all join in the chorus."
"Good!" said Kinnison, and the others echoed him.
Hand then sang the following words, the young men
joining in the chorus, and occasionally some of the
veterans attempting to do likewise.
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB 19
u Come swallow your bumpers, ye Tories, and roar
That the Sons of fair Freedom are hampered once more ;
But know that no cut-throats our spirits can tame,
Nor a host of oppressors shall smother the flame.
In freedom we're born, and, like sons of the brave,
Will never surrender,
But swear to defend her,
And scorn to survive, if unable to save.
" Our grandsires, bless'd heroes, we'll give them a tear,
Nor sully their honors by stooping to fear ;
Through deaths and through dangers their trophies they won,
We dare be their rivals, nor will be outdone.
In freedom we're born, etc.
" Let tyrants and minions presume to despise,
Encroach on our rights, and make freedom their prize ;
The fruits of their rapine they never shall keep,
Though vengeance may nod, yet how short is her sleep !
In freedom we're born, etc.
" The tree which proud Haman for Mordecai reared
Stands recorded, that virtue endangered is spared ;
That rogues, whom no bounds and no laws can restrain,
Must be stripped of their honors, and humbled again.
In freedom we're born, etc.
" Our wives and our babes, still protected, shall know,
Those who dare to be free shall forever be so ;
20 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
On these arms and these hearts they may safely rely,
For in freedom we'll live, or like heroes we'll die.
In freedom we're born, etc.
"Ye insolent tyrants, who wish to enthrall;
Ye minions, ye placemen, ye pensioners, all;
How short is your triumph, how feeble your trust !
Your honor must wither and nod to the dust.
In freedom we're born, etc.
" When oppressed and approached, our king we implore,
Still firmly persuaded our rights he'll restore ;
When our hearts beat to arms to defend a just right,
Our monarch rules there, and forbids us to fight.
In freedom we're born, etc.
" Not the glitter of arms, nor the dread of a fray.
Could make us submit to their claims for a day ;
Withheld by affection, on Britons we call,
Prevent the fierce conflict which threatens your fall.
In freedom we're born. etc.
" All ages shall speak with amaze and applause
Of the prudence we show in support of our cause;
Assured of our safety, a Brunswick still reigns,
Whose free loyal subjects are strangers to chains.
In freedom we're born, etc.
THE LEBANON LIBERTY CLUB 21
" Then join hand in hand, brave Americans all,
To be free is to live, to be slaves is to fall ;
Has the land such a dastard as scorns not a lord,
Who dreads not a fetter much more than a sword ?
In freedom we're born, and, like sons of the brave,
Will never surrender,
But swear to defend her,
And scorn to survive, if unable to save/'
The song was much applauded for its spirit, and
some of the young men wanted to give three more
cheers ; but Hand said they were already making too
much noise, so they checked their enthusiasm.
THE SKIRMISH AT LEXINGTON
"Now," observed Hand, "I should like to hear some
account of how things went on during the war. We
are all in the right mood for it."
"I could talk enough to fill whole books about the
war," replied Kinnison ; "but I want to hear Mr. Pitts
and Mr. Colson, and the rest of the old men, spend a
little breath for our amusement."
" Mr. Kinnison was in the fight at Lexington, and
all the principal battles in the Northern States during
the war. I think he could interest you more than I,"
" I'll make an agreement with you," responded Kin-
nison. " If I tell you all I know of that skirmish at
Lexington, one of you must follow me." The agree-
ment was settled, and Kinnison commenced his narra-
tive of how the first blow of the Revolution was
" You see, after that tea scrape, and the quarrels with
the redcoat troops in Boston, the people of Massachu-
THE SKIRMISH AT LEXINGTON 2$
setts, and, in fact, of nearly all New England, began
to see that there was no way of upholding their rights
but by war, and they accordingly began to arm and
practise military tactics.
" The fife and drum were to be heard every day all
around the country. In our village we collected a
company of about thirty men. My father and two
brothers, Samuel and James, and myself joined the
company ; and we used to parade and drill every day.
A bold and knowing fellow, named Jonathan Williams,
was our captain.
"Well, early in the fall of 1774, we heard the news
that Gage had fortified Charlestown Neck, and sent
some troops to seize the gunpowder at Cambridge.
This roused our mettle, and we set into drilling and
learning manoeuvres with more zeal.
"At one time a rumor reached us that the British
fleet had bombarded Boston ; and, I tell you, the men
did turn out. Some of them wanted to march right
down to Boston. Everywhere the people were crying,
' To arms ! to arms ! ' and we thought the war had com-
menced, sure enough ; but it didn't just then.
" However, there were about thirty thousand men
on the march to Boston,*and they wouldn't turn back
until they found the report was a hoax. Soon after,
24 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
the Provincial Congress met, and they ordered that a
large body of minute-men should be enrolled, so as to
be prepared for any attack.
"The people of our province took the matter into
their own hands, and organized a body of minute-men
without orders. Our company was included. We were
all ready for fight, but were determined that the red-
coats should strike the first blow ; so we waited
through the winter.
" In March Gage saw that great quantities of powder
and balls were taken out of Boston into the countrv,
in spite of his guard on the Neck. Every market-
wagon, and every kind of baggage, was stowed with
" He then sent a party of troops to Salem to seize
some cannon and stores our men had placed there ; but
Col. Pickering, with a few men, made such a show, that
the redcoats marched back again, without accomplishing
"Our chief deposit of stores was at Concord, up here
about twenty miles from Boston ; and when our militia
general found that Gage was sending out parties to
sketch the roads, with the aim of getting our stores
into his hands, he sent word to our company to be on
hand, and, if we could, to come up near Concord.
THE SKIRMISH AT LEXINGTON 25
"John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and all of our other
big men, left Boston, and went to Lexington, to keep
the people moving and ready for an attack."
" Dr. Joseph Warren staid in Boston," interrupted
Pitts, " to keep the others informed of the movements
of the redcoats."
" Yes," continued Kinnison ; "the royals, as Deacon
Slocum used to call 'em, didn't hate Warren so much
as they did John Hancock and the Adamses. Well,
when Capt. Williams heard what Gen. Gage was after,
he told us we had better be prepared to march at a
" Gage sent eight hundred troops, under Col. Smith
and Major Pit cairn, on his rascally errand. They
started from Boston about nine o'clock on the night of
the 1 8th of April, never thinking that our men knew
any thing about it ; but we were awake."
"Wait a bit," said John Warner, one of the veterans
who had not yet spoken. " I'll tell you something. I
was in Boston when the redcoats started, and knew that
the country militia were ready to protect the stores.
"I was standing on the Common, talking to a few of
my friends of my own politics, when I said rather loud,
'The British troops will miss their aim.' — 'What aim ? '
inquired a person behind me. ' The cannon at Con-
26 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
cord,' replied I as I turned to see who asked the
"The man was dressed in British uniform, and he
walked away as I turned to look at him. One of my
friends whispered to me that it was Lord Percy. Soon
after, guards were set at every avenue, and nobody was
allowed to leave the city."
" I suppose Lord Percy went to Gage, and told him
what he had heard," remarked Kinnison. "It must
have galled him a little to find they were so closely
" Well, Capt. Williams was first aroused by the
sound of the bells ringing and cannons firing on the
Lexington road, and he ordered us out to march and
join our friends near that place. It was a moonlight
night, and we marched rapidly. When we got about
half way to Lexington, we met a man who told us that
the minute-men of Lexington were out, but he didn't
think there would be much of a fight.
" Capt. Williams then thought it would be better for
the company to march to Concord, and help defend the
stores, but said that a few of us might go to Lexington
and see how things went on. Accordingly, my brother
Sam, — a ripe fellow Sam was, — and three others, and
myself, were allowed to go to Lexington.
THE SKIRMISH AT LEXINGTON 27
" We arrived there about half-past three in the
morning, and found the bells ringing, cannons firing,
and about a hundred minute-men drawn up in front of
the meeting-house, waiting the approach of the enemy.
We joined them, and placed ourselves under the orders
of Capt. Parker.
" Between four and five o'clock, we caught sight of
the redcoats coming along the road, with Pitcairn at
their head. I saw at once that we couldn't make much
show against so many regulars, and I believe all our
men thought the same ; but we stood firm, with our
loaded muskets in our hands.
" The red-coated troops were drawn up near the
meeting-house, just opposite to us, and loaded their
muskets. For a little while, it seemed as if neither
party wanted to begin, and that we both knew a long
war hung on the first fire.
"At last, Major Pitcairn and his officers rode for-
ward, waving their swords, and shouting, ' Disperse,
you villains — you rebels ! Why don't you disperse ? '
" As we didn't stir, Pitcairn turned, and ordered his
troops to press forward and surround us. Just then a
few scattering shots were fired at us, and we Lebanon
men returned them at once. Then Pitcairn fired his
pistol, and gave the word ' Fire ! ' and they did fire.
28 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
Four of our men fell dead, and, besides some others,
our Sam was wounded.
" We had to retreat, although I felt savage enough to
fight them all myself ; and so I fired my musket, and
took hold of Sam, and helped him to get away with us.
The redcoats continued to fire at us as we retreated,
and some of our men paid them in the same coin.
" Two or three of the men were killed as they were
getting over a stone fence ; and Capt. Parker, who
wouldn't run, was killed with the bayonet. I hurried
Sam into a house near by, saw him safe in the cellar,
where the owner of the house said he would attend to
him ; and then joined the other Lebanon men, who
were running towards Concord."
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD
" You must tell us what took place at Concord, also,"
said young Hand.
"Certainly," replied Kinnison. "Now that I've
got into the thing, I wouldn't mind telling you the
whole war ; but Concord will do for the present.
"Well, after a hard run, we reached Concord, and
found the minute-men collecting from all quarters,
and under the command of Col. James Barrett. The
women and children were hard at work removing the
stores to a wood a considerable distance off.
"We joined Capt. Williams, and told him there had
been a skirmish at Lexington, and that Sam was
wounded. Col. Barrett collected all the minute-men
about the place, and drew them up in two battalions,
on the hill in the centre of Concord.
" We had hardly formed, when we saw the redcoats
coming up only about a quarter of a mile off. Our
officers held a short council. Some were for making a
bold stand where we were ; but the greater number
said it would be best to retreat till we were re-enforced.
30 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
u Accordingly the back-out advice was adopted ; and
we retreated over the North Bridge, about a mile
from the common. I saw the royals come up and
enter Concord in two divisions. Soon after, some of
their companies took possession of the bridges, while
the others hunted the stores.
" About sixty barrels of flour were broken open, a
large quantity of cannon-balls thrown into the wells,
the liberty-pole cut down, and the court-house set
on fire. But the greater part of the stores were
" In the mean time, the minute-men had come in from
Acton, Carlisle, Weston, Littleton, and all around ;
and our force swelled to about four hundred men.
"I tell you, when the men saw the houses in Concord
burning, they got a ' leetle * excited — they did.
Adjutant Hosmer made a speech to them, and they
wanted to go right down and attack the redcoats at
the North Bridge. Our company was very anxious to
go, and it was settled that the attack should be made.
Major John Buttrick took command, and ordered us to
" There were about three hundred of us, the Acton
company, under Capt. Isaac Davis taking the lead.
We marched in double file, with trailed arms. I felt
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 3 1
anxious to have a good fire at the rascals. They were
on the west side of the river ; but when they saw us
coming, they crossed over, and commenced pulling up
the planks of the bridge.
"Major Buttrick called out to them to quit, and told
us to hurry on to save the bridge. The redcoats
formed for action, and, when we were near the bridge,
fired a few shots at us. Capt. Davis and Adjutant
Hosmer were killed, and one Acton man wounded.
Davis and Hosmer were both brave men, and they
died like heroes.
"Seeing these men fall, Major Buttrick called out,
'Fire, men, fire!' and we did pour a volley into the
redcoats. I brought down one man, and he never
got up again. We were getting ready to give them
another, when the cowards retreated. We found three
of the enemy had been killed, and the Acton company
took several of the wounded prisoners.
" I saw a young man, with an axe in his hand, run
up to a British soldier who wasn't quite dead, and kill
him with one blow. That I didn't like, though his
spirit and courage pleased me."
" It was butchery," said Pitts.
"So it was," replied Kinnison ; "and it caused a
report to be spread that we killed and scalped all the
32 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
men who fell into our hands. As I said, I didn't like
it ; but we had no time for thinking.
" The enemy saw how fast our men were coming in
from all quarters, for by that time the whole province
was aroused ; and they thought it would be best to
think of getting back to Boston.
"Well, they started from Concord about twelve
o'clock. As the main body marched along the road,
the flanking parties tried to cover them, but it was of
little use. We followed, and kept picking off men
from their rear, while it seemed as if there was a
minute-man behind every fence or tree by the road.
"We didn't march under any regular orders, but
each man tried to do all he could with his musket.
I and two or three other Lebanon men kept together,
and managed to pick off some men at every by-road.
"At one time, we just escaped the attack of a
flanking party who killed some of the militia a short
distance from us. We lay concealed in the bushes till
they went by, and then followed them up as before.
"At two or three points, some companies of minute-
men attacked the enemy in the open field, and killed
a considerable number of them. When they reached
Lexington they were almost worn out, and could not
have marched much farther.
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 33
"Just then, we saw a large re-enforcement of the
redcoats, under Lord Percy, coming along the Rox-
bury road, and we had to hold off a while. You ought
to have seen those royals, how they lay stretched on
the ground, with their tongues hanging out of their
"I got on the top of a stone barn, and saw Percy's
men form a hollow square about Smith's troops, in
order to protect them while they got a little breath.
But they could not halt long. The woods were swarm-
ing with minute-men ; and, if they waited, their retreat
would have been cut off.
" Well, they started again, and our men followed as
before, picking off men from the flanks and rear. At
West Cambridge, we met Dr. Warren with a party of
our men, and attacked the enemy boldly.
" But their bayonets. kept us off ; and we only roused
them so much that they plundered and burnt some
houses along the road, and butchered some women
and children. Well, after a hard struggle, the enemy
reached Charlestown, and then Gen. Heath called us
from the pursuit."
"I've read," remarked Mr. Hand, "that the British
loss during that day was nearly three hundred, — that
is, including wounded and prisoners."
34 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" It amounted to that, at least," replied Kinnison ;
"and our loss was less than one hundred men. I think
the royals got a taste of our spirit that day."
" Here is a man who can tell you something about
the retreat of the enemy," said Pitts, pointing to one
of the old men, named Jonas Davenport.
" Yes," said Jonas, "I know a little about it. I
lived near Lexington. My house stood on the road.
I joined the minute-men when I heard of the coming
of the British troops, and left my wife and two chil-
dren at home, under the care of my father, then about
sixty. I told them to keep as quiet as possible, and
they would be safe.
"Well, as I said, I joined the minute-men, and, when
the British rascals retreated from Concord, followed
and did some execution with my firelock. But one of
them shot me in the shoulder, and I couldn't point my
gun any more.
"I waited till the enemy had eot a considerable dis-
tance on the road towards Boston, and then managed
to reach my house. But such a house as I found it !
The windows were broken in, the doors torn off their
hinges, and the furniture broken and thrown about in
" I called for my father and wife, but received no
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 35
reply. I crawled up stairs, for I was nearly exhausted
from loss of blood; and there I found my father and
oldest child stretched on the floor dead. The old man
had his gun still clinched in his hand ; and he had, no
doubt, done the enemy some damage with it. But his
face was beaten in, and he had two or three bayonet-
stabs in his breast. The little boy had been shot
through the head.
" I was a pretty tough-hearted man, but I fainted at
the sight ; and, when I came to myself, I found my
wife and the youngest child bending over me crying.
How they did hug and kiss me when they saw me
revive ! I think I did as much to them, for I never
expected to see them alive.
" My wife told me that the old man would fire at the
British as they were passing the house ; and some of
them stopped, broke open the doors, and knocked the
things about. The old man and the little boy ran up
stairs, while my wife and the other child ran from the
house towards a neighbor's.
" As she ran away she heard the muskets fired, but
couldn't stop, as she thought the rascals were after
her. She had returned as soon as she knew they were
far on the road.
"I didn't grieve long, but sent her for the doctor
36 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
at Lexington to dress my wound. Boys, boys, I've
made many a redcoat pay for the lives of that old
man and child. I hated them enough before, but that
day's work made me all gall ! "
The memory of gratified revenge lighted up the old
man's eyes as he spoke. He was a man of stern spirit,
and no thought that such revenge was wrong ever
crossed his mind.
" I can tell you folks of something more about that
retreat from Concord," continued Davenport. "The
story is generally known up around the country here,
but some of you may not have heard it. It's about
old Hezekiah Wyman, who gained the name of 'Death
on the pale horse.' "
"I heard the story, and saw the old man on his
white horse," remarked Kinnison ; "but it will inter-
est the young men, no doubt, so drive on."
"Well, you see," began Davenport, "the window of
old Hezekiah Wyman's house looked out on the ground
where the British shot our men at Lexington. The
old man saw the whole affair, and it made him so sav-
age that he vowed to revenge his countrymen if he
fell in doing it.
"'Wife,' said he, 'is there not an old gun-barrel
somewhere in the garret ? '
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 37
"'I believe there is,' said she; 'but pray what do
you want with it ? '
"Tshould like to see if it is fit for service/ replied
he. * If I am not mistaken, it is good enough to drill
a hole through a regular/
" ' Mercy on me, husband'! are you going mad ? An
old man like you — sixty years last November — to talk
of going to war! I should think you had seen enough
of fighting the British already. There lie poor Capt.
Roe and his men bleeding on the grass before your
eyes. What could you do with a gun ? '
" The old man made no reply, but ascended the stairs,
and soon returned with a rusty barrel in his hands. In
spite of his wife's incessant din, he went to his shop,
made a stock for it, and put it in complete order for use.
"He then saddled a strong white horse, and mounted
him. He gave the steed the rein, and directed his
course toward Concord. He met the British troops
returning, and was not long in perceiving that there
was a wasp's nest about their ears.
" He dashed so closely upon the flank of the enemy
that his horse's neck was drenched with the spouting
blood of the wounded soldiers. Then reining back his
snorting steed to reload, he dealt a second death upon
the ranks with his never-failing bullet.
38 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" The tall, gaunt form of the assailant, his gray
locks floating on the breeze, and the color of his steed,
soon distinguished him from the other Americans ; and
the regulars gave him the name of ' Death on the pale
"A dozen bullets whizzed by his head when he
made the first assault ; but undismayed the old patriot
continued to prance his gay steed over the heads of
the foot-soldiers, — to do his own business faithfully,
in the belief that, because others did wrong by firing
at him, it would be no excuse for him to do wrong by-
sparing the hireling bullies of a tyrannical government.
" At length a vigorous charge of the bayonet drove
the old man, and the party with which he was acting,
far from the main body of the British. Hezekiah was
also out of ammunition, and was compelled to pick up
some on the road, before he could return to the charge.
" He then came on again, and picked off an officer,
by sending a slug through his royal brains, before he
was again driven off. But ever and anon, through the
smoke that curled about the flanks of the detachment,
could be seen the white horse of the veteran for a
moment, — the report of his piece was heard, and the
sacred person of one of his Majesty's faithful subjects
was sure to measure his length on rebel ground.
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 39
" Thus did Hezekiah and his neighbors continue to
harass the retreating foe, until the Earl Percy appeared
with a thousand fresh troops from Boston. The two
detachments of the British were now two thousand
strong, and they kept off the Americans with their
artillery while they took a hasty meal.
"No sooner had they again commenced their march,
than the powerful white horse was seen careering at
full speed over the hills, with the dauntless old Yankee
on his back.
"'Ha!' cried the soldiers, 'there comes that old
fellow again, on the white horse ! Look out for your-
selves, for one of us has got to die, in spite of fate.'
"And one of them did die, for Hezekiah's aim was
true, and his principles of economy would not admit
of his wasting powder or ball. Throughout the whole
of that bloody road between Lexington and Cambridge,
the fatal approaches of the white horse and his rider
were dreaded by the trained troops of Britain ; and
every wound inflicted by Hezekiah needed no re-
" But on reaching Cambridge, the regulars, greatly
to their comfort, missed the old man and his horse.
They comforted themselves by the conjecture that he
had at length paid the forfeit of his temerity, and
40 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
that his steed had gone home with a bloody bridle
and an empty saddle.
"Not so. Hezekiah had only lingered for a moment
to aid in a plot which had been laid by Amni Cutter,
for taking the baggage-wagons and their guards. Amni
had planted about fifty old rusty muskets under a stone
wall, with their muzzles directed toward the road.
"As the wagons arrived opposite this battery, the
muskets were discharged ; and eight horses, together
with some soldiers, were sent out of existence. The
party of soldiers who had the baggage in charge ran
to a pond, and, plunging their muskets into the water,
surrendered themselves to an old woman, called Mother
Barberick, who was at that time digging roots in an
"A party of Americans recaptured the gallant Eng-
lishmen from Mother Barberick, and placed them in
safe keeping. The captives were exceedingly aston-
ished at the suddenness of the attack, and declared
that the Yankees would rise up like mosquitoes out
of a marsh, and kill them.
"This chef d'ceuvre having been concluded, the har-
assed soldiers were again amazed by the appearance of
Hezekiah, whose white horse was conspicuous among
the now countless assailants that sprang from every
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 41
hill and ringing dale, copse, and wood, through which
the bleeding regiments, like wounded snakes, held
their toilsome way.
"His fatal aim was taken, and a soldier fell at every
report of his piece. Even after the worried troops had
entered Charlestown, there was no escape for them
from the deadly bullets of the restless veteran.
" The appalling white horse would suddenly and
unexpectedly dash out from a brake, or from behind
a rock, and the whizzing of his bullet w r as the precursor
of death. He followed the enemy to their very boats ;
and then, turning his horse's head, returned unharmed
to his .household.
" 'Where have you been, husband ? '
" ' Picking cherries/ replied Hezekiah ; but he for-
got to say that he had first made cherries of the red-
coats by putting the pits into them."
"That old man was sure death," remarked Kinnison.
" I knew the old fellow well. He had the name of
being one of the best shots around that part of the
country. I should never want to be within his range."
" The old man immortalized himself," said Hand.
"It served the rascals right," observed Hanson.
"They only reaped what they had sown. War is a
horrible matter altogether, and I don't like it much ;
42 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
but I like to see it done up in that old man's style,
if it is done at all."
" I should like to have seen that royal officer that
said he could march through our country with three
regiments," said Kinnison. " If he was with Smith
and Pitcairn that day, he saw there was a little of the
bull-dog spirit in the Yankees."
"I think," observed Pitts, "we might have that old,
heart-firing, arm-moving tune, called Yankee Doodle.
Come, Brown, pipe."
"Ay," replied Brown; "that tune came out of this
old fife naturally — almost without my blowing it. For
some time I couldn't work any thing else out of it."
" Come, pipe and drum the old tune once more,"
cried Colson ; and it was piped and drummed by Brown
and Hanson in the real old Continental style. The
effect on the company was electric. Knives and forks
and feet kept time to the well-known music.
Some of the old men could scarcely restrain them-
selves from attempting a cheer, and the young men
felt themselves stirred by a feeling of patriotism they
had scarcely known before.
The spirit of 1775 dwelt in the music ; and, as the
quick notes started from fife and drum, visions of
farmers leaving the plough in the furrow, and shoul=
THE FIGHT AT CONCORD 43
dering the rusty and unbayoneted firelock ; of citizens
leaving their business and homes, to grasp the sword
and gun ; of stout-hearted, strong-armed minute-men,
untrained to war's manoeuvres, marching and battling
with the well-disciplined, war-schooled, and haughty
Britons, made confident by a more than Roman career
of victory ; and of the glorious fight at Bunker Hill, —
came to the minds of all present. Three cheers were
given, when the musicians had concluded, for the tune
itself, and three more for those who had played it.
THE FIFER'S STORY
"Now," said Kinnison, "I expect that some of you
men who know something about the old times will
keep your promise of following my story."
"I'll tell you a story," replied Brown, the fifer.
" Perhaps some of you won't believe it ; but it's all fact,
and that you'll find if you choose to hunt for the papers.
It's chiefly about me and my fife, and Hanson and his
"Pipe away, Brown," said Kinnison.
"Well, you see," began Brown, "Hanson and I were
drummer and fifer in Col. Brooks's regiment at Saratoga ;
and we were in the battle of Stillwater, fought on the
19th of September.
"I'm not going to 'spin a yarn,' as the sailors say, in
giving you an account of that battle ; for that has been
said and sung often enough. It is sufficient for me to
say, that it was the hardest-fought and the bloodiest
battle that I ever saw ; and Hanson and I were in the
thickest of it, where the bullets were hailing.
THE FIFER'S STORY 45
" Our regiment suffered a good deal in the way of
losing men, and I saw many an old friend fall near me.
But at dusk, when most of the Americans were ordered
to camp, Hanson and I were unhurt. Col. Brooks kept
the field when the other officers retired with their forces.
" Some of the men of his regiment were tired, and
grumbled ; but he wanted to show the enemy that they
had gained no advantage over us, and that our spirits
were as strong as when the day's work commenced.
"This conduct you might have expected from what
you have heard of Brooks's character. He was all game
— Brooks was ; one of those whip-or-die men, that are
not to be found everywhere.
" Well, as I said, our regiment remained on the field,
and finally got into a skirmish with some of the German
riflemen. We knew they were German riflemen by the
brass match-cases on their breasts.
" In this skirmish, a ball struck me on the hand, went
through it, and knocked my fife clear away beyond our
flank. Well, I couldn't part with my Yankee Doodle
pipe in that way, without trying to get hold of it again.
"So I told Hanson, and he put down his drum, and
proposed that we should go and get it ; and we did go
out together, while the balls were whizzing round our
ears, and got the fife."
46 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"Hold on, Brown," interrupted Kinnison. "Wasn't
it a dark night ? "
"Yes," replied Brown, "but we saw where the fife
lay, by the quick flashes of the guns. — Didn't we,
Hanson ? "
"Yes, it is a fact," replied the drummer ; "and when
we returned, I found a couple of balls had passed
through the heads of my drum."
" I told you I thought you wouldn't believe it," ob-
served Brown; "but here's the fife, and here's the
mark where the ball passed through my hand." Brown
exhibited the scar, and doubt seemed to be set at rest.
Kinnison, however, shook his head, as if unsatisfied.
" There wasn't a great deal in the mere going after
the fife at such a time," continued the fifer; "but I
thought Fd mention it, to give you an idea of Hanson's
"Very w r ell," remarked Hand, "we are satisfied now
that both Mr. Brown and Mr. Hanson are really men of
"Mr. Davenport," said one of the young men,
"won't you entertain us with an account of something
you saw or joined in, or did yourself, during the war ?"
" Were any of you at Quebec with Arnold and
Montgomery ? " inquired one of the veterans, who had
been an attentive and silent listener to the preceding
"I accompanied Col. Arnold on the expedition up
the Kennebec,' , replied Davenport.
" Then tell us about it, won't you ? " eagerly exclaimed
one of the young men.
"Ay, Davenport, tell us about it," added Kinnison.
" I've never heard any thing I could depend on about
that march through the wilderness. Old Joe Weston
tried to give me an account of it ; but his memory was
very weak, and he hadn't the knack of talking so that
a person could understand him."
" Well, you see," began Davenport, " I was living up
here on the Lexington road, when I heard that Gen.
48 -THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
Washington had planned an expedition to Canada by
way of the Kennebec and the wilderness north of it,
and that Col. Arnold had been appointed to command
the troops who were to undertake it.
"I was preparing to join the army at Cambridge,
but I thought that Arnold's expedition would suit me
better than staying in camp around Boston. So I fur-
nished myself with many little knick-knacks, shouldered
my musket, and started off to offer my services.
"They placed me in one of the companies of Major
Bigelow's battalion. I believe there were about eleven
hundred men, in all, under Arnold's command, who
marched from Cambridge to Newburyport. There we
embarked on board of eleven transports, and, on the
19th of September, sailed for the Kennebec.
" I must confess, I didn't like the idea of starting so
late in the year, because I knew we would meet with
some of the coldest kind of weather before we reached
Canada ; but I had to be satisfied.
"At the end of two days we had entered the Kenne-
bec, and reached the town of Gardiner. The only
accident we had met with was the grounding of two
of our transports, but we got them off without much
" I forgot to mention, however, that two hundred
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 49
carpenters had been sent up the river, before we
started from Cambridge, with orders to build two hun-
dred bateaux at Pittston, opposite Gardiner. Well,
when we arrived at that place, we found the bateaux
ready, and immediately transferred our baggage and
provisions to them, and pushed up the river to Fort
" At that place our real work was to commence.
Col. Arnold knew a great deal about the route ; and he
had undertaken it because he knew what he had to
encounter, and how much glory he would win if he
succeeded. But we men, who were to work and suffer
most, knew nothing about the route, except that it was
through a wilderness where few white men had set
"Before the army started from Fort Western, two
small parties were sent forward to survey and recon-
noitre the route as far as Lake Megantic and the
" Next, the army began to move in four divisions.
Morgan and his riflemen went first ; next day, Green
and Bigelow, with three companies ; next day, Meigs,
with four companies ; and the next day, Col. Enos,
with the three other companies.
" You see, the divisions started a day apart, so as to
SO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
prevent any difficulty in passing rapids and falls. Col.
Arnold waited to see all the troops embarked, and then
passed the whole line till he overtook Morgan. On
the fourth day after our party — that is, Green and
Bigelow's — started from Fort Western, we arrived at
" You may recollect there used to be a tribe of
Indians called the Norridgewocks, who had a village
near these falls. I saw the plain where the village
stood, and the ruins of the church which was destroyed
by Capt. Moulton during the war with the tribe.
" At the falls all the bateaux had to be taken out of
the river, and transported a mile and a quarter by land.
You may suppose there was some work about that part
of the journey.
"The banks on each side of the river were very
rugged and rocky, and we had to carry the greater
part of our baggage on our backs. One-half of the
party helped the oxen to draw the boats up to the place
where they were to be put into the water again.
"We found some of the boats were leaky, and a
great deal of the provisions damaged, which was
a matter of importance, as you will see when I get
farther on in my story.
"We were seven days in passing round that fall and
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION SI
repairing our boats. During those seven days, we
worked as I had never seen men work before ; and,
strangely enough, there were very few grumblers in
"We joked, and sang lively songs, even during the
hardest labor ; and I got into a much better humor
than I was in when I started.
"We had an Irishman, named Jim O'Brien, in our
mess, who was one of the best-hearted and quickest-
witted chaps I ever encountered ; and we had a friend
of his, named Murtough Johnson, who was as dull and
blundering as O'Brien was keen and ready. So, you
see, with O'Brien's jokes and Johnson's blunders, we
had something to amuse us.
" I recollect at one time we were pushing our boat
up on the bank clear of the water, and Johnson handled
his pole so clumsily that he fell into the river. O'Brien
hauled him out after he had a severe ducking in rather
"The officers worked as hard as the men. Every
sinew and muscle was brought into use. Col. Arnold
seemed to be ever active, cheering on the men, and
often lending his hand to aid them."
"What sort of a looking man was Arnold at that
time?" inquired Hand.
52 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"He was then about thirty-five years old," replied
Davenport, "of the middle size, and rather stout. His
face was rather handsome, but there was an iron look
about his mouth that many a man would not like ; his
eyes were of a dark gray, and full of fire and restless-
ness. He seemed never to be satisfied unless he was
moving about, and doing something."
" Exactly as I knew him," remarked Kinnison.
"Well," said Davenport, "I'll return to my story.
At the end of seven days we were ready to move on ;
and we soon arrived at the Carratunc Falls, where
there was another portage.
"We got round that, however, without much diffi-
culty. The banks were more level, and the road not so
long ; but the work afterwards was tough. The stream
was so rapid that the men were compelled to wade, and
push the bateaux against the current.
" There was a little grumbling among us, and quite
a number of the men deserted. Two days after reach-
ing the Carratunc Falls, we came to the Great Carrying
Place. There work was to begin, to which all our
other work was play. The Great Carrying Place ex-
tended from the Kennebec to the Dead River, about
fifteen miles, and on the road were three small ponds.
" Before we took our bateaux out of the water of
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 53
the Kennebec, we built a block-house on its banks as
a depository for provisions, so as to secure a supply in
case of retreat."
" I thought you said you had no extra quantity of
provisions," said Pitts.
"I did," replied Davenport. "We did not intend
to leave any of our provisions at the block-house. It
was built as a repository for supplies ordered up from
" Well, we took the boats out of the water, and took
most of the baggage and provisions out of the boats,
and toiled up a steep, rocky road for more than three
miles to the first pond.
" There the boats were put into the water, and we
had a short rest. We caught plenty of fresh salmon-
trout in the pond, and Col. Arnold ordered two oxen
to be killed and divided among us, as a sort of treat.
" At the second portage we built another block-
house for the sick. At that time I felt sick and
worn out myself ; but I couldn't think of stopping, so
I kept my sufferings hidden as much as I could from
everybody but O'Brien, who did all he could to help
"After crossing the last pond, we had several
marshes and deep ravines to cross. Sometimes we
54 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
had to wade up to the knees in mud and water, carry-
ing heavy bundles of baggage on our shoulders, and
in constant danger of sinking into deep mud-holes.
" Ha, ha ! I recollect O'Brien, Johnson, and myself
were toiling along through one of the marshes, Johnson
a short distance behind, when O'Brien and I heard a
yell and a cry of ' Och, murther ! ' The yell, I thought
might have come from a savage, but the ' Och, murther ! '
I knew never could.
" O'Brien's quick eye soon discovered what was the
cause of it, and I followed him back. There we found
Johnson, up to his neck in mud and water, yelling for
help to get out of the bloody dirt.
"I was the first to grasp his hand; but in pulling,
my foot slipped, and I fell in alongside of Johnson.
O'Brien was more careful ; he got on the baggage
that Johnson and I had thrown down, and by great
exertions dragged us both out ; but in such a condition !
covered with mud from head to foot.
"Of course, O'Brien and I laid it all on Johnson's
blundering. O'Brien said he believed Johnson's birth
was a blunder of nature, she had regretted ever since ;
and that if he fell into a mud-hole again, he should
"Johnson admitted that he was thinking of home
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 55
when he fell into the dirty place ; he was just kissing
his darlin' Mary when his foot slipped.
" Well, we shouldered our wet baggage, and waded
on to the rest of the party ; and soon after, we reached
Dead River. This river seemed to have a smooth
current, broken by two or three little falls, and we
thought we could have quite an easy progress.
"The boats were easily pushed along, and the men
got the rest they wanted. As we were going slowly
along the river, we discovered a high mountain, the
summit of which appeared to be whitened with snow.
" Near the base of the mountain we found Arnold,
with the two first divisions, encamped. We were all
very glad to see a camp once more, and enjoyed it, I
tell you, as much as a good meal after a hard day's
"■On the day after the arrival of our party, Col.
Arnold raised the pine-tree flag over his tent, the
men firing a salute and giving three cheers as soon
as it was raised. On the same day, Major Bigelow
went up to the top of the mountain, expecting to see
the spires of Quebec. But he wasn't a Moses ; he
didn't see the promised land. After that, I believe
the people gave the Major's name to the mountain.
" Ninety men were sent back to the rear for provis-
56 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
ions, which now began to grow scarce. It began to
rain before we left the encampment, and it rained the
best part of three days ; every man was drenched with
water, as well as all the baggage.
" Morgan and Arnold, with the first and second
divisions, had gone ahead, and we followed. One
night we landed at a rather late hour, and were try-
ing to get a little rest, when we were awaked by the
freshet, which came down upon us in a torrent.
O'Brien waked Johnson and myself just in time to
allow us to get out of the way.
"The water rose to a great height, covering the
low grounds on each side of the river, and the current
became very rapid. As the bateaux moved on, they
would get entangled among the driftwood and bushes.
Sometimes we wandered from the main stream into
the branches, and then we would have to fall back
into the proper course.
"The number of falls seemed to increase as we
advanced, and of course there was a portage at every
one. I was almost worn out with toil and sickness ;
yet I was sustained by the hope of succeeding in the
expedition, and of doing some injury to the enemy
before I died. You know how an excited spirit will
overcome weakness of body.
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 57
" At length a disaster happened to our party which
almost checked the expedition. By some bad manage-
ment, and partly by accident, seven of our bateaux
were overset. O'Brien, Johnson, and myself were
among the men thrown into the water ; and we had
a terrible time of it, clinging to the bottoms of the
" We pushed the boats ashore, and not a single man
was drowned ; but all the baggage and provisions in
the boats were lost. That made such a breach in our
provisions, that the boldest hearts began to be seized
"We were then thirty miles from the head of
Chaudiere River, and we had provisions for twelve
days at the farthest. A council of war was held, and
it was decided to send the sick and feeble men back,
and to press forward with the others.
" Col. Arnold wrote to Col. Greene and Col. Enos,
who were in the rear, to select such a number of
their strongest men that could supply themselves
with fifteen days' provisions, and to come on with
them, leaving the others to return to Norridgewock.
You know how Col. Enos acted upon that order :
he marched back to Cambridge, while Col. Greene
obeyed Col. Arnold's instructions."
58 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" People have different opinions of that man's con-
duct/' said Kinnison. " For my part, I think he was
a poor-spirited man, if not a coward.''
"I think so too," said Davenport. " Although his
court-martial acquitted him, Gen. Washington and
other officers showed such dissatisfaction, that he
resigned his commission."
" Never mind the shirk," said Pitts: "tell us how
the men of the right grit made out."
" Well," said Davenport, " after Col. Arnold had
arranged his plans, he hurried forward with sixty
men, intending to proceed as soon as possible to the
inhabitants on the Chaudiere, and send back provisions
to the main body. When we started again, the rain
had changed to snow, which fell two inches deep.
Ice formed on the surface of the water, through which
we were forced to wade and drag the boats. You may
talk about suffering at Valley Forge, but I tell you it
was no kind of circumstance to what we men endured.
We were cold, hungry, and tired all the time, and yet
we couldn't rest, for fear of starvation in the wilderness.
" I always think my living through it all was owing
to O'Brien's care, and his trying to keep me in good
spirits. Poor fellow ! he met his death at Quebec. I
shall never forget him. The man who could forget
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 59
such service at such a time would be a blot upon the
name of humanity.''
Davenport paused, as if indulging mournful memory,
and then proceeded : " Near the source of the Dead
River, we had to pass through a string of small lakes,
choked with driftwood and rocks. So it seemed as if
we met greater difficulty at every step of our advance.
" At last we reached the four-mile carrying-place,
from the Dead River to the stream that leads into Lake
Megantic. We took the bateaux out of the water, and
dragged and carried them over the highlands till we
reached the little stream, which conducted us by a very
crooked course into Lake Megantic. I began to think
our toils and dangers would soon be over, and of course
worked with a light heart.
"At the lake, we found Lieut. Steel and the explor-
ing party which had been sent forward to explore and
clear the path at the portages. The night after our
party entered the lake, we encamped on the eastern
shore, where a large Indian wigwam, that appeared as if
it had been used for a council, served to shelter us from
the cold winds.
" Col. Arnold ordered Hanchet and fifty men to
march by land along the shore of Chaudiere River, and
he himself embarked with Capt. Oswald, Lieuts. Steel
60 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
and Church, and thirteen men, determined to proceed
as soon as possible to the French inhabitants, and send
back provisions to the army. This was the only plan
to save the men from starvation.
"You see, the Chaudiere is a rough, rapid river, the
water in some places boiling and foaming over a rocky
bottom. The baggage had to be lashed to the boats.
Arnold's party fell among the rapids. Three of the
boats were overset, dashed to pieces against the rocks,
and their contents swallowed up by the waves. Six
men struggled for some time in the water, but were
"That accident turned out to be a lucky one ; for no
sooner had the men dried their clothes and re-embarked,
than one of them, who had gone forward, cried out, k A
fall ahead ! ' and thus the whole party was saved from
" Soon after we entered the Chaudiere, we worked
round several falls, and kept clear of the rapids for a
while ; but it couldn't last, We lost boats here and
there, till we hadn't enough to carry the men and what
baggage we had with us ; and so we took to the land,
and began our march through the woods alons: the
banks of the river.
" Now a kind of suffering be^an, which we hadn't
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 6l
dreamed of when we started, but which we had been
expecting before we lost our boats. We had to drag
ourselves along, over rocks and ravines, and through
thick underwood, with starvation staring us in the face.
" I had never been a hearty feeder, and could bear
the want of provisions better than those in good health,
and who had accustomed themselves to cramming. But
poor Johnson fainted several times on the march, and
O'Brien suffered more than he would tell.
" Every thing eatable was at length entirely used.
Several dogs, generally favorites of their owners, had
been killed and entirely devoured, even to the entrails.
O'Brien, Johnson, and myself boiled our moccasins, to
see if any nourishment could be drawn from the deer-
skin. But the skins were dry.
" It seemed as if we were doomed to starvation. No
game of any kind appeared, and even the eatable roots
were not to be found. I remember seeing a party of
men, Johnson among them, discover a well-known root
in the sand, and rush for it as if it had been a diamond.
The man who got it devoured it instantly, though at
any other time it would have made him sick."
" I wonder how those men would have acted if they
had met such a loaded table as this in the woods," said
62 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Acted!" said Davenport. " Like wolves whose
stomachs had been pinched with hunger for a week.
You may judge from what I tell you. As we were
marching slowly through the woods, a set of ragged
skeletons, the foremost of the party caught sight of
some Canadians and Indians coming towards us, with
great packages and bundles which we knew were the
provisions sent by Col. Arnold.
" There was a perfect yell of joy, and the whole party
rushed towards them. But Major Bigelow and his
officers kept the men off from the food, at the sword's
" The food was then distributed in very small quanti-
ties to each man. How it disappeared ! I venture to
say that ten minutes after the men received their
shares, they had devoured them all. The Canadians
and Indians were ordered to keep enough provisions
for the other troops, who were fed as they came up.
" At last we caught sight of the French settlement
of Sertigan, where Col. Arnold had arrived some days
before. The people came out to receive us, but they
wondered at us as if we were more than men. They
offered us plenty of food and clothing, and took care of
the sick. Within four or five days, the whole army
was collected by small parties at Sertigan.''
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 63
" What was the number of the troops who arrived
safe ? " inquired Pitts.
" About five hundred and fifty men, I suppose," re-
plied Davenport. "The rest had either gone back with
Enos, deserted, or been left at the block-house, sick."
"How long did the expedition occupy?" inquired
"About two months," replied Davenport. "For
thirty-two days we traversed a dreary wilderness with-
out meeting a human being."
" It was a great feat, and the men who performed it
are entitled to high renown," said Hand.
"Many of them afterwards became distinguished,"
said Davenport. "Morgan, Dearborn, Meigs, Febiger,
Greene, and others were known to the enemy in after
Mr. Hand then said he had a song to sing to the tune
of "Ye Mariners of England." It was not his own com-
position. He had found it in print, and, knowing the
music, thought it would be acceptable. Being pressed
to sing, he complied, singing the following words : —
" Ye freemen of Columbia,
Who guard our native coast,
Whose fathers won your liberty,
Your country's pride and boast;
64 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
Your glorious standard rear again,
To match your ancient foe,
As she roars on your shores,
Where the stormy tempests bio-
As she prowls for prey on every shore,
Where the stormy tempests blow.
" The spirits of your fathers
Shall hover o'er each plain.
Where in their injured country's cause
The immortal brave were slain.
Where bold Montgomery fearless fell,
Where carnage strewed the field,
In your might shall you fight,
And force the foe to yield :
And on the Heights of Abraham
Your country's vengeance wield.
" Columbia fears no enemy
That ploughs the briny main ;
Her home a mighty continent,
Its soil her rich domain !
To avenge our much-loved country's wrongs,
To the field her sons shall fly,
While alarms sound to arms.
We'll conquer, or we'll die.
When Britain's tears may flow in vain.
As low her legions lie.
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 65
" Columbia's eagle standard
Triumphant then shall tower,
Till from the land the foe depart,
Driven by its gallant power.
Then, then, ye patriot warriors !
Our song and feast shall flow,
And no more, on our shore,
Shall war's dread tempests blow ;
But the breeze of peace shall gently breathe,
Like the winds that murmur low."
Th$ song was well received by the company, who
were not disposed to be critical. The drum and fife
were then brought into play ; Brown and Hanson, with-
out entreaty, striking up " Come out, ye Continent-
allers." This rollicking tune called up such laughable
associations, that one of the young men proposed that
it should be sung.
No one knew it entire, except Brown the fifer, who
had been the musician of his mess, as well as of the com-
pany ; and Brown complied with the repeated entreaties
of the young men, singing the following ludicrous
words in a cracked and weak remnant of a voice : —
" Come out, ye Continentallers !
We're going for to go
To fight the redcoat enemy,
Who're plaguy ' cute,' you know.
66 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Now, shoulder whoop ! eyes right and dress !
Front ! — Davis, wipe your nose —
Port whoop ! — that's slick — now, carry whoop ! —
Mike Jones, turn out your toes.
" Charge bagnet ! — that's your sort, my boys :
Now, quick time! march! — that's right;
Just so we'd poke the enemy,
If they were but in sight.
" Halt ! shoulder whoop ! — stop laughing, Nick —
By platoons, wheel ! halt ! dress !
Hold up your muzzles on the left;
No talking, more or less.
" Bill Sneezer, keep your canteen down,
We're going for to travel.
* Captain, I wants to halt a bit,
My shoe is full of gravel.'
" Ho ! strike up music ! for'ard march !
Now point your toes, Bob Rogers.
See, yonder are the redcoat men !
Let fly upon 'em, sogers."
This song was written in the early part of the Revo-
lutionary war, to burlesque the meeting of the country
militia, and afterwards became very popular. Although
ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION 67
Brown had not much voice, he managed to give a
correct and exceedingly laughable expression to the
" That may be all true enough of some of the coun-
try militia," said Robinson; "but in our village there
was no such foolery. Regulars — and British ones at
that — couldn't have gone through a better training, or
a better drill.
" One of the British officers at Saratoga said that
the New England militia were equal to regulars ;
and as far as marching up to cannons' mouths and
driving back dragoons goes, I think they were, my-
"You see, for a long time previous to the battle of
Lexington, we had trainings all around the country;
and some of our officers were men who had seen some
hard service in the Old French War.
"Why, just look at the men that Ethan Allen and
Arnold led against Ticonderoga, as strong a place as
was ever fortified in the Northern States. There was
not a bolder or better-conducted enterprise in the whole
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST TICONDEROGA
" Were either of you in the expedition against
Ticonderoga ? " inquired Hand, wishing to learn the
particulars of that affair.
" Ay," replied a little old man, who had quit eating
and fallen asleep during Davenport's narrative, and had
only wakened up at the sound of the drum and fife
playing "Come out, ye Continentallers." " I was with
Ethan Allen. I was one of the Green Mountain boys
that did the thing."
"Then perhaps you can tell us something about it,"
said Kinnison, "and about the quarrel between Allen
and Arnold. I never heard the facts of the case ; but
from what I know of the two men, I feel sure Arnold
"To be sure he was," said old Timothy Ransom.
"To be sure he was. But I'll tell you all I know about
the matter. I was at work on my farm when I heard
of the battle of Lexington.
" I belonged to a regiment of militia that used to
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST TICONDEROGA 69
meet for drill on a neighboring farm. Ethan Allen
was the colonel, and he was fit to be the leader any-
where. He would lead where any would follow, was
as honest a man as ever breathed, and had a great
share of strong sense.
"As soon as Col. Allen heard that the war had
really begun, he determined to seize Ticonderoga,
where a great quantity of munitions of war were
stored. I forgot to tell you, however, that Allen
was commissioned a colonel by the government of
"He collected our boys at his residence, and marched
to Bennington, where he expected to be joined by more
volunteers. At Bennington we met Col. Easton, with
some men from his regiment of militia. Our party
then amounted to two hundred and seventy men ; and,
though I was one among them, I may be allowed to
say that a more daring and a tougher set of men were
" About dusk on the 7th of May we reached Castle-
ton, that's about fourteen miles east of Skenesborough.
There we were to make our final arrangements.
"A council of war was held. Col. Allen was ap-
pointed commander of the expedition, Col. Easton
second in command, and Seth Warner third. Allen,
70 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
with the main force, was to march to Shoreham, oppo-
site Ticonderoga ; Capt. Herrick with thirty men was
to push up to Skenesborough, and capture the young
Major Skene, confine his people, and, seizing all the
boats he could find there, hasten to join Allen at
Shoreham ; and Capt. Douglas was to proceed to
Panton, beyond Crown Point, and secure all the boats
that should fall in his way.
" On the 9th of May, Arnold arrived at Castleton
with a few officers and men, and, after introducing
himself to our officers, showed a commission from
the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, by which he
claimed the supreme command.
"But our boys wouldn't hear any thing of the kind.
We all said that Ethan Allen was our leader, and if
he had not the command we would march back to our
homes. So Col. Arnold found that he would have to
join us without a command, or go back where he came
from. He chose to join as a mere volunteer, smother-
ing his claim till another occasion.
" On the same day on which Col. Arnold arrived,
Mr. Phelps, one of the Connecticut Committee who
were with us, disguised himself as a countryman who
wanted to be shaved, and visited Ticonderoga to spy
into the condition of the garrison. He found that
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST TICOXDEROGA 71
the walls of the old fort were broken down, and that the
small garrison were careless of all discipline.
" As soon as Col. Allen was informed of this state of
things, he resolved to move on at once. We marched
to the shore of the lake, opposite Ticonderoga, during
the night of the 9th of May. Allen had secured a
guide in a boy named Nathan Beman, who was fully
acquainted with every secret way that led into the
" But we found that we hadn't boats enough to carry
all the party over the lake. Allen, Arnold, Easton,
and eighty-three of the men, of whom I was one, had
crossed just as the day was beginning to dawn.
" To wait would have been too hazardous, as the
garrison, if aroused, might make a stout resistance,
and we wanted to buy success as cheaply as possible.
Col. Allen resolved to commence the attack at once.
" We were drawn up in three ranks on the shore
nearly opposite the fort. Allen then made a short ad-
dress to us. He was never a man of many words. He
said he knew our spirit, and hoped we would remember
the cause for which we were about to strike ; that
would nerve the arm of a coward. He concluded by
conjuring us to obey orders strictly, and to commit no
slaughter that could be avoided.
J2 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Then, with Arnold at his side, Allen led us
stealthily up the rocks to the sally-port. I saw the
sentinel snap his fusee at our bold leader, and rush
into the covered way that led into the fort.
" We followed upon his heels, and were thus guided
right into the parade within the barracks. There
another sentinel made a thrust at Easton. But Col.
Allen struck him on the head with his sword, and
the fellow begged for quarter.
" As we rushed into the parade, we gave a tremen-
dous shout, and filed off in two divisions. The men
of the garrison leaped from their beds, seized their
arms, and rushed into the parade, only to be seized by
"I snatched a musket from a redcoat's hand just as
he was taking aim at Capt. Herrick, and made the
fellow shriek for quarter by merely striking him along-
side of the face with my fist.
" While we were securing the men, Col. Allen and
the boy Nathan Beman went up-stairs to the door of
the room in which Capt. Delaplace and his wife were
sleeping. Allen gave three loud raps with the hilt
of his sword on the door, and with his strong voice
ordered the captain to surrender, or the whole garrison
should be slaughtered.
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST TICONDEROGA 73
" Our shouting had awakened the captain and his
wife, and they sprang to the door. Delaplace appeared
in his shirt and drawers, and recognizing Col. Allen
as an old friend, boldly demanded why he was dis-
turbed. Allen replied by ordering him to surrender
instantly. Delaplace then said, ' By what authority do
you demand it ? '
" ' In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Con-
tinental Congress/ replied Col. Allen, with the full
thunder of his voice, as he raised his sword over the
head of the captain. This convinced the captain that
the wisest course was to comply, and so he gave the
order for the troops to parade without arms.
" Forty-eight British regulars surrendered prisoners
of war, and the fort and every thing in it became ours.
The regulars, with the women and children, were sent
to Hartford. We found nearly two hundred pieces of
ordnance, and an immense quantity of ammunition
of all kinds, and plenty of eatables.
"Just after the surrender, Seth Warner, with the
rear division, crossed the lake and joined us. The
prisoners were secured, and then we all took a hearty
breakfast. We had been up and on duty all night ;
and that, together with our success, made us enjoy
that breakfast more than an every-day one.
74 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Col. Arnold again attempted to take the command
of our men and the fort. But none of us would obey
his orders ; and the Connecticut Committee said that
Col. Allen was the rightful commander, as the men
were to be paid by Connecticut, and Massachusetts
had furnished nothing for the enterprise, and Allen
had been formally chosen.
" Arnold was forced to yield, but he sent a state-
ment of the matter to the Massachusetts Assembly.
That body confirmed Allen's appointment, and directed
Arnold not to interfere.
"On the day of the capture of Ticonderoga, Col.
Seth Warner, with a small body of our men, was
sent to take possession of Crown Point. But a tre-
mendous storm arose, and Warner was compelled to
put back and pass the night with us. The next day he
started, and captured Crown Point without firing a shot.
" You see, the garrison only amounted to a sergeant
and eleven men, and they didn't expect an attack ;
so that Warner had only to come suddenly upon them,
and make a bold show, and they surrendered. More
than one hundred cannon were taken at that place,
and thus, you see, we had something to begin the
" Col. Arnold gave up the idea of commanding at
THE EXPEDITION AGAINST TICONDEROGA 75
Ticonderoga ; but he would command somewhere, and
so he soon after undertook an expedition against St.
John's. It appears to me Arnold was very wrong in
attempting to remove such a man as Allen from the
command. But I believe he was always thinking of
"I can't agree with you, Ransom," said Jonas
Davenport. "I think he was a selfish man in general,
but I know he could be generous sometimes. In that
expedition to Canada, he helped his men whenever he
could in the smallest matters, when many other com-
manders would have minded their own comfort alone.
Let us have justice done to every man. I never liked
Arnold as a man, but I think he was as good a soldier
and general as I ever knew."
"I preferred Old Putnam to Arnold," said John
Warner. " He was quite as daring, and a much
" Ay, a braver man than Gen. Putnam never drew
a blade," said Kinnison. "That man's adventures would
make as interesting a book as you'd wish to read."
"I should like to hear some of them," said Hand.
"You've heard of his great feat at Horseneck, I
suppose," said Jonas Davenport.
"Yes," replied Hand, "and often wandered at it."
GEN. PUTNAM'S ESCAPE
"I happened to be on the spot, and see that affair,"
said John Warner. " I was on a visit to a friend
at a farm near Horseneck, when the news of Gov.
Tryon's approach, with a large force, reached me. I
hadn't joined the regular army, for a great many rea-
sons ; but I always took advantage of an opportunity
to serve the right side.
" Gen. Putnam's picket of one hundred and fifty
men, with two field-pieces, was the only force in that
neighborhood ; but I knew Old Put would have a
shot at the enemy, no matter how few men he had
with him. So I shouldered my firelock, and went
and offered my services.
" Gen. Putnam planted his cannon on the high
ground near the meeting-house, and awaited the ap-
proach of the enemy. Directly we saw Tryon with
a great force of regulars, coming along the road. Our
cannon blazed away at them, and checked their advance
for a short time.
GEN. PUTNAM'S ESCAPE 77
" But pretty soon we saw the dragoons and infantry
preparing to make a charge, and Old Put knew there
wouldn't be much chance of our withstanding the
shock. So he ordered us to retire into the swamp,
just back of our position, where we would be safe from
dragoons at least, and where we would have an even
chance with the infantry.
" I expected to see the general follow us, but he
turned his horse towards the stone steps that led down
the rocks from the meeting-house. As we fell back, I
had time to observe him.
" When he reached the head of the steps, the horse
stopped as if afraid of the attempt. But Old Putnam
knew there was no time to lose, as the dragoons were
nearly upon him. So he struck his spurs into the
horse's sides, and they plunged dow T n the steps to-
"I lost sight of the horse and rider just then, but
saw the redcoat dragoons stop short at the head of the
precipice, and fire their pistols after them. Not one
among the redcoats dared to follow ; and, ten chances
to one, if they had attempted it, they would have
broken their necks, for the precipice was so high and
steep as to have one hundred steps cut in it.
" Before they could get round the brow of the height
;S THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
by the ordinary road, the general was far beyond their
reach. Tryon didn't attempt to follow us into the
swamp, but soon after commenced his retreat.
" We fell back to Stamford, where we met the gen-
eral with some militia he had collected, and marched
back in search of Tryon. The redcoats had completed
their work, and were out of our reach."
" That ride was but one of a whole life of such
deeds," said Kinnison. "There never was a man who
dared more than Putnam. In the Old French War he
astonished the boldest savages and rangers by his feats,
often throwing himself into the arms of death, as it
were, and escaping without any serious hurt."
" It was a great pity," said Colson, "that Putnam
was not a younger man when the Revolutionary War
broke out. He had spent his best years in fighting for
the old country against the French and Indians."
"Perhaps it was better as it was," said Davenport.
"I think there were brave men enough in our army."
It was clear that Davenport was disposed to argue the
respective merits of the generals of the Revolution.
Hand thought argument might check the flow of good
feeling, and therefore suggested that thev should have
more drum-and-fife music.
Brown and Hanson agreed, and upon request struck
GEX. PUTNAM'S ESCAPE 79
up the * White Cockade.' This was spirit-stirring, and
called forth much applause. Another song was called
for; and one of the young men sang the following
song, written for the occasion, but which his modesty
had hitherto held back. The music was that of ' Rule
" When our great sires this land explored,
A shelter from tyrannic wrong,
Led on by heaven's Almighty Lord,
They sung, — and acted well the song, —
Rise united ! dare be freed !
Our sons shall vindicate the deed.
" In vain the region they would gain
Was distant, dreary, undisclosed ;
In vain the Atlantic roared between,
And hosts of savages opposed :
They rushed undaunted, Heaven decreed
Their sons should vindicate the deed.
"Twas Freedom led the veterans forth,
And manly fortitude to bear:
They toiled, they vanquished ! such high worth
Is always Heaven's peculiar care.
Their great example still inspires,
Nor dare we act beneath our sires.
80 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
u Tis ours undaunted to defend
The dear-bought, rich inheritance ;
And spite of each invading hand,
We'll fight, bleed, die, in its defence !
Pursue our fathers' paths of fame,
And emulate their glorious flame.
' ; As the proud oak inglorious stands,
Till storms and thunder root it i.
So stood our new unpractised bands,
Till Britain roared her stormy bias
Then, see. they vanquished ! fierce led on
Bv Freedom and great Washington."
The song had very little poetry and less music in it,
but patriotism applauded its spirit. Mr. Hand again
directed the conversation in such a manner as to glean
as much information from the veteran patriots as possi-
ble, and inquired if any of them had seen the hero of
Bennington, — Gen. John Stark.
" Oh, yes ! ; ' replied Timothy Ransom. " There were
very few of the right-side-up men in Vermont that I
didn't see, and know too. See Gen. Stark ! I guess
I did, and at Bennington too/'
" I thought Gen. Stark belonged to Xew Hampshire,"
GEN. PUTNAM'S ESCAPE 8l
"So he did," replied Ransom. "The country that
now makes the States of Vermont and New Hampshire
was then called the New Hampshire Grants, and was
governed by one assembly and one council."
"What sort of a looking man was Stark ? " inquired
"Well, he wasn't much to look at," said Ransom.
" He was about the middle height, and strongly built.
He had a firm look about the face ; and you might
have been sure of his doing what he said he would do,
just from hearing him talk. Blunt and downright he
was, and didn't- stop to pick words. He had seen a
tougher life than any of his neighbors, — fighting as
a ranger and regular soldier; and you might suppose
there was no nice affectation in his dress and manners,
like you find in some of our generals. He was a man
made for service."
" Did you say you were with Gen. Stark at Benning-
ton ? " inquired Hand.
"Ay, and did my share of that day's work," replied
Ransom. "That was a battle, my boys. If you had
seen the way that the militia walked up to the enemy's
cannon, and fought with regulars, you would have said
at once, there was no use of Great Britain trying to
subdue such men."
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON
"You shall hear about the battle of Bennington,"
said Ransom. " At the time Burgoyne was advancing
towards the Hudson, the people of Massachusetts and
the New Hampshire Grants were alarmed, and feared
that Burgoyne would march towards Boston. The
whole frontier was uncovered. But the people began
to feel the necessity of taking measures to check the
advance of the enemy.
" Gen. Stark was then at home, angry with Congress
on account of his rank not being equal to his services.
He had resigned his commission in the regular army.
I was then at my farm, having gone home after serving
with Col. Allen. I expected to be called into service
again, but didn't intend to fight under any other orders
than those of John Stark ; because I knew the man
had been badly treated, and I and most of the militia
felt for him.
"The New Hampshire Assembly met, and began to
adopt measures for the defence of the country. The
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 83
militia was formed into two brigades. Gen. Whipple
was appointed to command the first, and Gen. Stark
the second. Stark refused to accept the appointment.
But finding that his name was a host, he was induced
to yield his private griefs for the public good.
"He said he would assume the command of the
troops, if he was not desired to join the main army,
and was made accountable to no authority but that of
New Hampshire. His conditions were accepted, and he
went to Charlestown to meet the Committee of Safety.
"As soon as I heard that Gen. Stark was in the field,
I hurried off to Charlestown to join the militia I knew
would assemble there. I found the men were coming
in from all directions, and all were in high spirits.
Stark sent us off to Manchester, twenty miles from
Bennington, to join Col. Warner's regiment.
" You know, after that skirmish at Hubbardton,
Warner could scarcely muster more than two hundred
men, and we who were sent from Charlestown were to
fill out his regiment. I found most of the men had
been in service since the war began, and knew what
fighting was, and I thought they were a match for
twice their number. But I had some near neighbors in
the regiment of Col. Nichols at Bennington : I went
and joined him.
84 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" As our regiment was filling up, Gen. Stark arrived
at Manchester, where he met Gen. Lincoln, who had
come to conduct the militia across the Hudson to Gen.
Schuyler ; but Stark told him that the men were called
together to protect their homes in New Hampshire,
and could not be taken out of that part of the
" I heard afterwards that Gen. Lincoln informed
Congress of the state of things in our neighborhood,
and that Congress censured Gen. Stark ; but he didn't
care for that. He knew he was right in staying in Xew
Hampshire, and that the men who censured him knew
nothing about the state of things there.
"Well, we were called upon to meet the enemy
sooner than we expected ; for it appeared that Baum,
with his Germans and Indians, was on his march
towards Bennington. Soon after, I arrived at [Man-
chester. About four hundred men had collected at
Bennington, when Gen. Stark arrived there, and more
were coming in constantly. I guess it was on the 13th
of August when we received information that some of
Baum's Indians had been seen near Cambridge; that's
about twelve miles from Bennington.
"Then there was a stir among the men, and all sorts
of preparation for a desperate battle. We all knew
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 85
that we were going to fight for our homes, and that
made us eager to meet the enemy. All the men of
Bennington who could bear arms joined us, and the old
men and women and boys did all they could to get us
information, and to supply our wants,
" Gen. Stark sent Lieut-Col. Gregg, with two hundred
men, to check the enemy. In the course of the night
we were informed that the Indians were supported by a
large body of regulars, with a train of artillery ; and
that the whole force of the enemy were in full march
" Gen. Stark immediately called out all the militia,
and sent word to Col. Warner to bring his regiment
from Manchester. Before daylight on the morning of
the 14th of August, Gen. Stark had about eight hun-
dred men under his command, including Col. Gregg's
" We then moved forward to support Gregg. About
four or five miles from Bennington, we met our detach-
ment in full retreat, and the enemy w T ithin a mile of it.
Stark ordered us to halt, and we were then drawn up in
order of battle.
"Baum saw we were prepared to make fight, and
halted, instead of coming up to the work like a man.
A small party of our men were forced to abandon Van
86 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
Shaick's mill, where they had been posted, but not
before they had killed a few of the enemy.
" Stark found that the enemy were busy intrenching
themselves, and he tried to draw them from their posi-
tion by sending out small parties to skirmish ; but it
was of no use, they wouldn't come out and fight ; so
Stark fell back a mile, leaving a part of our regiment
"Now, you know that's a kind of fighting in which
the Green Mountain boys were always first best. Be-
fore we fell back to the main body, we had killed and
wounded more than thirty of the enemy, including two
Indian chiefs, without losing a man."
" The battle should have been all skirmishes," said
Kinnison. " You might have cut the enemy up piece-
"We tried it next day," said Ransom. "It was
rainy, and Stark thought it best not to attempt any
thing more than skirmishing. Our light parties ap-
peared in the woods on every side of the enemy, and
picked off the men so fast that the Indians became
disheartened, and began to desert Baum.
"The rain, which prevented our troops from attacking
the enemy, enabled them to complete their intrench-
ments, and send to Gen. Burgoyne for re-enforcements ;
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 87
but on the morning of the 16th of August, we found
that Gen. Stark and a council of war had agreed upon
a plan of attack, and intended to execute it that day.
" I don't think there was a man among our troops
who was not anxious for a fight. Our skirmishes had
put us in the humor for it. I can't exactly give you
an idea of the position of the enemy, and of the
real amount of skill Gen. Stark displayed in his plan
" But I'll try to do the best I can. The Germans
were posted on a rising ground near a bend in Wal-
lomsac Creek, which is a branch of the Hoosick River.
The ground on both sides of the creek is rolling, and
the position of the Germans was on the highest of the
small hills. Peters's corps of Tories were intrenched
on the other side of the creek, nearly in front of the
German battery, and on lower ground.
"During the night of the 15th, Col. Symonds with
about one hundred Berkshire militia arrived in camp.
Parson Allen, who, you may have heard, was such a
zealous Whig, was with the Berkshire men ; and he
wanted to fight right off.
" But Gen. Stark told him, if the next day was clear,
there would be fighting enough. Well, when the
morning of the 16th of August came, it was clear
88 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
and bright. Both armies seemed to know that day
was to decide between them.
" Gen. Stark had given his orders to all the colonels
of his regiments. Col. Nichols, with our corps of
about two hundred men, marched up the little creek
just above the bridge, to attack the rear of the enemy's
left ; while Col. Herrick, with three hundred men,
marched to attack the rear of the right, with orders
to join our party before the assault was made.
"Cols. Hubbard and Stickney were ordered to
march down the Wallomsac, with three hundred men,
near the Tories, so as to turn Baum's attention to that
" We started about noon, and marched through
the thick woods and up from the valley towards the
enemy's intrenchments. Our march w T as rapid and
silent, and the enemy didn't see us until we were near.
"We gave the first volley, and rushed upon them.
I saw, through the smoke, Col. Herrick was coming
up. We had the Indians between us, and you should
have heard them yell, and whoop, and ring their cow-
bells, but they wouldn't stand ; they fled through our
detachments, and left the Hessians to shift for them-
" Soon after we commenced the attack, Gen. Stark
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 89
made that short address you have heard so much about.
Josiah Wemyss, one of my old friends, was near the
general when he spoke. He told me Stark raised
himself in his stirrups, and said, ' See there, men !
there are the redcoats ; before night they are ours,
or Molly Stark will be a widow ! Forward ! - and they
did forward, and rush upon the Tories with such force
that they drove 'em across the stream, upon the
Germans, who were then forced from their breast-
works on the heights.
" Then the battle became general. Such a tremen-
dous fire I never saw before, and never expect to see
again. Col. Baum and his dragoons fought like brave
men, and for a long time could not be broken. We
attacked them on one side, and Stark on the other ;
but they stood their ground, and when their powder
gave out, Col. Baum led them to the charge with the
" But it couldn't last : our men were fighting like
mad, and our firelocks brought down the enemy at a
tremendous rate. Many of us had no bayonets, — I
among them ; yet we marched up to the Germans just
the same as if we had the best arms. At last the
Germans gave way and fled, leaving their artillery
and baggage on the field.
90 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Our men didn't pursue. You see, Gen. Stark, in
order to give the men every inducement to do their
best on the field, promised them all the plunder that
could be taken from the enemy ; and as the Germans
fled, we all scattered to seize on what they had left.
" I had the good luck to get a sword and one of the
heavy hats which the dragoons wore. I didn't care
much about the value of the things in regard to the
money they would bring ; but I thought they would
be something to keep in the family, and make them
remember that battle.
" While I was looking for more things, I caught
sight of a man riding at a furious rate towards Gen.
Stark. He called out, ' Rally, rally ! more Germans !
rally ! ' and sure enough, we saw a large body of the
enemy coming out of the woods, in good order. It
was the re-enforcement Baum had sent for.
"Gen. Stark had collected a small body of men,
when I hurried to join a few of our regiment that Col.
Nichols had rallied. I thought that our victory was
about to be snatched from us ; but just then Col.
Warner's regiment arrived from Manchester, fresh
and well-armed. They attacked the Germans at once,
while Stark, with about two hundred of us, pushed
forward to aid them.
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 91
" Then began an obstinate struggle ; not like the
other fight with the Germans and Tories, but a run-
ning fight on the hills and plains, just the kind of
skirmish in which a hundred Green Mountain boys
were worth double their number of redcoats. About
sunset, the greater part of our men were engaged, and
the enemy was beaten in every part of the field.
" We drove them from the hills down towards Van
Shaick's, killing, wounding, and taking prisoners all
the time. At Van Shaick's mill they made their last
stand. They had placed a small party of Tories in the
building, and a party of Germans rallied in front of it.
But it was no use ; the Germans were driven away,
and the men in the house forced to surrender.
" Our men pursued the enemy to the Hoosick, and
captured the greater part of 'em. I really believe, if
night hadn't come on, we would have taken every man
of them. But Gen. Stark ordered the men to return,
for fear they would fire upon each other in the gloom.
" Before I came back, however, I caught a Tory
lurking near the edge of the woods. Now, I hated
Tories worse than the British or Germans, and I had
a strong notion to shoot him, and I told him so ; but
he begged hard for his life, and said he never intended
to take up arms against his countrymen again. I took
92 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
him back to our troops, and put him with the other
" What was the loss of the enemy that day ? " in-
" I heard since, that it was nine hundred and thirty-
four men, including killed, wounded, and prisoners,"
replied Ransom. " I recollect we buried two hundred
and seven of them. Our own loss was one hundred
killed, and about the same number wounded. Besides
the prisoners, we took four pieces of brass cannon,
more than two hundred and fifty swords, several hun-
dred muskets, several brass drums, and four ammuni-
tion-wagons. So, you see, we had plenty of plunder."
" I suppose the men w r ere not allowed to take any
thing but the swords and muskets," said Kinnison.
" Yes, the baggage fell to us," said Ransom, "and
all the fixings of the German camp ; the cannon, drums,
wagons and standards were not taken away."
" I guess that was one of the most complete victories
ever gained," said Kinnison. " Only to think of militia
flogging regulars in that style ! What could the enemy
expect from our regulars ? "
" There is as much credit due to Gen. Stark for that
victory, as was ever given to him, or as we could
give to a general," said Ransom. " If he had not taken
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 93
command of the troops, there would have been very
little resistance to Baum's advance. The plan of at-
tack was formed with great skill, and the general went
into the battle with the determination to win it or leave
his body on the field. Such a man as John Stark would
make soldiers out of cowards."
Mr. Hand here proposed three cheers for Gen.
Stark and his Green Mountain boys, and they were
given with a hearty will. One of the young men then
announced that he had a song which had been sung at
an anniversary of the battle of Bennington, and which
he would now sing if the company wished it. Of course
the company did wish it, and the young gentleman sang
the following words : —
" Remember the glories of patriots brave,
Though the days of the heroes are o'er ;
Long lost to their country, and cold in their grave,
They return to their kindred no more.
The stars of the field, which in victory poured
Their beams on the battle, are set;
But enough of their glory remains on each sword
To light us to victory yet.
" Wallomsac ! when Nature embellished the tint
Of thy fields and mountains so fair,
Did she ever intend a tyrant should print
The footsteps of slavery there ?
94 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
No ! Freedom, whose smiles we shall never resign,
Told those who invaded our plains,
That 'tis sweeter to bleed for an age at thy shrine,
Than to sleep for a moment in chains.
" Forget not the chieftain of Hampshire, who stood
In the day of distress by our side;
Nor the heroes who nourished the fields with their blood,
Nor the rights they secured as they died.
The sun that now blesses our eyes with his light
Saw the martyrs of liberty slain ;
Oh, let him not blush, when he leaves us to-night,
To find that they fell there in vain ! "
Brown and Hanson had prepared their instruments
during the singing, and immediately followed it with
Washington's March, to which knives and forks kept
" An incident occurred just after the battle of Ben-
nington, which showed the spirit of the people of the
neighborhood," said Ransom, when the musicians had
" Old Zedekiah Bleeker, who lived in Bennington,
sent five bold sons to join our little army, just before
the battle. One of them — Sam Bleeker — was killed ;
and one of the old man's neighbors came to tell him
about it. 'Mr. Bleeker,' said the neighbor, 'your son
MR. BLEEKER AND HIS SON
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 95
has been unfortunate.' — 'What!' said the old man,
' has he misbehaved ? Did he desert his post, or shrink
from the charge ? ' "
" ' Worse than that/ replied the neighbor; c he was
slain, but he was fighting nobly.' — 'Then I am satis-
fied,' said the old man ; 'bring him to me.' Sam's body
was brought home. The old man wiped the blood from
the wound, and, while a tear stood in his eye, said it
was the happiest day of his life, to know that he had
five sons fighting for freedom and one slain for the same
cause. There was a spirit of patriotism for you."
" I can tell you of an instance quite as good," said
old John Warner. " Perhaps it is better ; for in this
instance, a woman displayed the like spirit. A good
lady in 1775 lived on the seaboard, about a day's march
from Boston, where the British army then was. By
some unaccountable accident, a rumor was spread in
town and country, in and about there, that the Regu-
lars were on a full march for the place, and would prob-
ably arrive in three hours at farthest.
"This was after the battle of Lexington, and all, as
might be well supposed, was in sad confusion; some
were boiling with rage and full of fight, some with fear
and confusion, some hiding their treasures, and others
flying for life.
96 THE BOSTOxN TEA PARTY
" In this wild moment, when most people in some
way or other, were frightened from their propriety, our
heroine, who had two sons, one about nineteen years of
age, and the other about sixteen, was seen preparing
them to discharge their duty.
"The eldest she was able to equip in fine style. She
took her husband's fowling-piece, * made for duck or
plover' (the good man being absent on a coasting
voyage to Virginia), and with it the powder-horn and
shot-bag ; but the lad thinking the cluck and goose shot
not quite the size to kill regulars, his mother took a
chisel, cut up her pewter spoons, and hammered them
into slugs, and put them into his bag ; and he set off in
great earnest, but thought he would call one moment
and see the parson, who said, ' Well done, my brave
boy ! God preserve you ! ' and on he went in the way
of his duty.
" The youngest was importunate for his equipments,
but his mother could find nothing to arm him with but
an old rusty sword. The boy seemed rather unwilling
to risk himself with this alone, but lingered in the
street in a state of hesitation, when his mother thus
upbraided him : —
"'You John Haines, what will your father say if he
hears that a child of his is afraid to meet the British ?
THE BATTLE OF BENNINGTON 97
Go along ! Beg or borrow a gun, or you will find one,
child ; some coward, I dare say, will be running away ;
then take his gun, and march forward ; and if you come
back, and I hear you have not behaved like a man, I
shall carry the blush of shame on my face to the grave/
She then shut the door, wiped the tear from her eye,
and waited the issue. The boy joined the march. Such
a woman could not have cowards for her sons."
" I heard of many such instances," said Kinnison.
" Such a spirit was common at the time, not only in
New England, but throughout the States. Look at
the noble conduct of some of the people of New
Jersey, during Washington's retreat, and afterwards.
The women did all they could to lessen the sufferings
of the men, and many an old man wanted to join the
army, knowing how much he would have to endure."
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN
"The women were all right during the Revolution,"
said Pitts. " I can tell you of an instance in which a
woman displayed both patriotism and wisdom, though
it may be rather a long story.''
"Oh! the longer the better," said Hand.
"Very well," said Pitts, "I'll tell you about it, as
near as I can recollect. One night, while the British
army was encamped on Long Island, a party of the
redcoats, galled by the death of Major Andre, formed
a plan to cross over to the Connecticut side, and cap-
ture Gen. Sullivan, who commanded some of the Amer-
icans stationed there, and hold him in revenge for
"It was a hazardous project, but four bold men
pledged themselves to undertake it. John Hartwell,
a brave young officer, was selected as their leader.
" Soon as arranged they proceeded to a boat, and
made the best progress they could across the river ;
on gaining the shore, they made for a small clump of
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN 99
underwood, where they lay concealed until they noted
what direction it was best to take.
" Here too may be seen the tents where repose the
brave men who have sworn to protect their homes and
country, or die in its defence against the invaders who
seek to control their free rights. Near may be seen
a spacious farmhouse, the abode of Gen. Sullivan, —
the brave soldier and faithful friend, who now slept
unconscious of danger.
" Through some neglect, the sentinels on duty had
wandered from their posts, never dreaming it possible
that any one would risk a landing, or could pass the
tents unobserved. By a circuitous route they gained
the house, and here the faithful watch-dog gave the
alarm. A blow soon silenced him ; and ascending the
piazza, Capt. Hartwell opened the casement, and, fol-
lowed by his men, stepped lightly into the sitting-room.
" They now struck a light, and with caution pro-
ceeded on their search ; they passed through several
apartments, while, strange to relate, the inmates slept
on, unconscious of this deed of darkness.
" They, at length, reached the general's room ; two
of the men remained outside, while Capt. Hartwell,
with another officer, entered, and stood in silence,
musing; on the scene before them.
IOO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" A night-lamp burned in the room, dimly revealing
the faces of the sleepers, whose unprotected situation
could not but awake a feeling of pity even in their
"'Jack,' whispered his companion, 'by Heaven, I
wish this part of the business had been intrusted to
some one else ! I could meet this man face to face,
life for life, in the field of battle ; but this savors too
much of cowardice.'
"'Hold your craven tongue, Low,' answered Capt.
Hartwell ; ' perform your part of the play, or let some
one else take your place ; you forget the scrape we are
in at the least alarm. We might happen to salute the
rising sun from one of the tallest trees on the general's
farm, an idea far from pleasing.
" ' For my part, I could wish myself back on Long
Island. But our general expects every man to do his
duty : let yours be to prevent that female from scream-
ing while I secure her husband.'
"The ear of woman is quick, and from their entering
the room not a word had escaped Mrs. Sullivan. At
first she could scarce refrain from calling out, but her
uncommon strength of mind enabled her to master
her fear. She scarce knew what to think : her hus-
band's life, herself, and family were at stake, and her
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN IOI
courage rose in proportion as her sense of danger
" She scarcely dared to breathe, and even the infant
at her breast seemed to partake of its mother's anxiety,
and nestled closer to her bosom.
"The curtains partly shaded where she lay; and,
breathing a prayer to Heaven for protection, she
silently stepped from the bed, scarce knowing how
" Her woman's tact led her to appeal to their sym-
pathies, if sympathies they had, — if she died, she but
risked her life for one dearer than herself, whose exist-
ence to his country was invaluable, — and perhaps by
this means enable him to escape. In an instant she
was before them, her infant at their feet, her pale be-
seeching face imploring what speech refused to utter.
" The officers started : this sight was unexpected ;
the least hesitation, and all would be lost.
"Capt. Hartwell threw aside his heavy watch-cloak,
and said, —
" ' Madam, let this uniform be the warrant for our
honor. Our object is to take your husband alive, if
possible; that depends, however, on your silence.'
" At this moment Gen. Sullivan awoke, and, finding
his wife in the hands of men whose calling he knew
102 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
not, his good sword was soon in his hand ; but a strong
arm wrested it from him, handcuffs were placed on his
wrists, and he stood their prisoner.
" He inquired by what right they entered his house.
'Our object, sir/ replied the officer, 'is to convey you
to Long Island. The least expression of alarm from
you, that moment you breathe your last ; if peaceable,
no violence will be offered.'
"Mrs. Sullivan threw herself before them, and en-
treaties for mercy gushed from her agonized heart.
1 Oh, spare him ! Take what money is here, but leave
me my husband, the father of my children ! Think, if
you have wives or families, w r hat their sense of bereave-
ment would be, to see some murderous band tear you
from their arms, and they left in horrid uncertainty as
to your fate! Take all that we have, but leave him.'
A sneer of scorn curled the officer's lip, as he coolly
"'Madam, we are neither robbers nor assassins; the
compliment on our part is quite undeserved. We are
" 'Then, sir,' exclaimed Mrs. Sullivan, starting to her
feet, — her eyes flashing, her proud form trembling, as
her own wrongs were forgot in those of her country, —
' shame on the cause that sanctions such a deed as this
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN 103
— in the silence of night to enter a peaceful dwelling,
and take an unoffending man from the arms of his
wife and family ! Truly, such an act as this would well
need the cover of darkness.
" ' You may call yourselves servants of Britain —
that is your fit appellation. Take him ! Another vic-
tim is required for my country. But the vengeance of
Heaven is abroad ; and, ere long, the men who war for
the price of blood will find the arm of him who fights
for his fireside and liberty, nerved by a stronger con-
sciousness of right.'
" ' Madam/ interrupted the officer, awed by the stern
majesty of her manner, ' I came not here to interchange
words with a woman, or I might speak about warring
against our lawful king. — But you know, Tom/ turn-
ing to his companion, 'I never was good at preaching.'
— 'Not to a woman, certainly,' said Tom, laughing;
'or rather you could never bring one to your way of
"A slight noise warned them of the impropriety of
their longer remaining. The general, having completed
dressing, took an affectionate farewell of his wife, as-
suring her he would soon be enabled to return. They
left the house, but to gain the shore was a matter of
some difficulty. The general was rendered incapable
104 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
of making the slightest noise if he had wished to ; and
they had tied Mrs. Sullivan, and bound her mouth, to
prevent her giving any alarm. But the tents were not
so easily passed.
" The morning was fast approaching, and the route
they came would occupy too much time to retrace it.
Their only plan now was to make as straight a line as
possible to the shore. Already had they passed one
tent when the cry, 'Who goes there ?' was heard. In
a moment they gained the shadow of an adjoining tent,
when a man suddenly stepped before them, and de-
manded their business.
" No time could be lost. The two officers proceeded
on to the boat with the general, while the remainder
overpowered the sentinel, and joined their companions
as the dawn was faintly perceptible in the east. By the
time an alarm was given, they were far beyond the
reach of pursuit.
"Their prisoner was borne in triumph to their com-
mander, who intended waiting superior orders as to the
disposal of him.
" In the mean while, Mrs. Sullivan was not idle. A
council was called, and every plan was proposed that
could tend to liberate her husband.
" The womanly wit of Mrs. Sullivan suggested that
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN 105
they should cross the river in the same manner as the
British had done, and seize the person of one of their
influential men, and hold him as an hostage until terms
could be agreed upon for the exchange of prisoners. It
was a risk, and, if discovered, no mercy could be
" The nephew of the general, a young officer of merit,
and several others, volunteered their services. The
following night was arranged for the purpose.
"The difficulty, when the time arrived, was to pro-
cure some mode of getting over. A whale-boat was
at length found, into which the adventurers got,
disguised as fishermen. They soon arrived at Long
Island, and proceeded to the residence of Judge
" With some difficulty they secured that worthy func-
tionary, and notwithstanding his assurance as to being
a good patriot, which they assured him they did not in
the least question, conveyed the good man to the boat,
in spite of his wish to finish his sleep out, and embarked,
pleased with their success.
"On reaching the house of Mrs. Sullivan, they in-
troduced their prisoner. Mrs. Sullivan courteously
apologized for the necessity they had been under for
requesting his society without due time for preparation ;
106 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
assuring him that the house and all in it were at his
service while he honored it as his abode.
"The judge was taken quite at a loss. At any time
he was a man of few words, but the sudden transition
had quite bewildered his faculties. At times he doubted
whether the good old cognac, of which he had taken a
plentiful supply before retiring to rest, had not turned
" He stood in the centre of the apartment, gazing
listlessly around him, until the voice of Airs. Sullivan,
politely inquiring if her guest stood in need of any re-
freshment, recalled his fleeting thoughts. The tempt-
ing repast set before him did wonders in restoring his
good humor, his sail having given him quite an appe-
tite ; and at any time a lover of the good things of life,
and knowing arguments could produce no alteration in
his fate, he submitted with as much good grace as pos-
sible, a little alleviated by the reflection that a woman's
care was not the worst he could have fallen into. By a
singular coincidence, Mrs. Sullivan learned that her
husband was an inmate in the house of the judge, — an
assurance in every way relieving, — having been placed
in his charge until conveyed from Flatbush.
" Letters were soon interchanged, the Americans
refusing to yield their prisoner without the British
THE CAPTURE OF GEN. SULLIVAN 107
doing the same. Terms were accordingly entered into,
and the judge prepared to take leave of his fair hostess
at the same time her husband was taking leave of the
judge's wife. The judge had been highly pleased with
the manners of Mrs. Sullivan, who did every thing
in her power to make his stay agreeable.
"The two boats with their respective prisoners at
length set sail ; and, meeting on the river, they had an
opportunity of congratulating each other on the happy
termination of their imprisonment, which, thanks to
woman's wit, so fertile in expedients, had saved them
from what might have been a tragedy.
" With assurances of friendship they parted, the wives
soon having the pleasure of embracing their husbands.
Subsequently letters couched in terms of the warmest
gratitude were exchanged between the two ladies, for
the attention paid to their respective husbands."
"That Mrs. Sullivan was a remarkable woman," re-
marked Colson. " But so were most of the women of
our side at that time ; and the fact is, such a cause as
ours would have made heroes and heroines out of the
weakest. Besides, what will a woman not do to save
her husband, at all times ? "
"A good stratagem, — that of Mrs. Sullivan's," said
THE PATRIOTISM OF MRS. BORDEN
" I heard of an instance in which a woman was still
more heroic than Mrs. Sullivan/' said Ransom, "be-
cause, in this case, the lady suffered for maintaining
the cause of her country.
" When New York and Rhode Island were pos-
sessed by the British armies, and the Jerseys, over-
run by their victorious generals, opposed but a feeble
resistance to their overwhelming power, Lord Corn-
wallis, commanding a large division of their troops,
stationed at Bordentown, addressing Mrs. Borden, who
resided on her estate in a mansion of superior elegance,
demanded in an authoritative tone, ' Where, madam,
is your rebel husband ? where your rebel son ? '
"'Doing their duty to their country, under the or-
ders of Gen. Washington,' was the prompt reply.
" 'We are well apprised/ rejoined the English officer,
' of the influence you possess over the political creed of
your family, and that to them your opinion is law. Be
wise, then, in time, and while mercy is tendered to you,
fail not to accept it.
THE PATRIOTISM OF MRS. BORDEN 109
" % Bid them quit the standard of rebellion, and cor-
dially unite with us in bringing his Majesty's deluded
subjects to submission, and a proper sense of their
errors and ingratitude to the best of kings. Your
property will then be protected, and remain without
injury in your possession. But, should you hesitate to
profit by our clemency, the wasting of your estate and
destruction of your mansion will inevitably follow/
" ' Begin, then, the havoc which you threaten/ replied
the heroic lady: 'the sight of my house in flames
would be to me a treat, for I have seen enough of you
to know that you never injure what it is possible for
you to keep and enjoy. The application of a torch to
it I should regard as a signal for your departure, and
consider the retreat of the spoiler an ample compen-
sation for the loss of my property/
"This was one. of those threats which the British
never failed to carry into execution. The house was
burned, and the whole property consigned to waste and
desolation. But, as had been foreseen, the perpetrator
of the ruthless deed retreated, to return no more/ ,
"Just like Cornwallis and his redcoats," said Kinni-
son; "burning people's houses and wasting their lands
was a way of making converts, which they practised
with a vengeance."
THE ESCAPE OF CAPT. PLUNKETT
"Yes/' said Warner, "Mrs. Borden was a heroine
who wouldn't have disgraced the Romans. But what
would you think of a mere girl, whose family was op-
posed to our cause, exerting herself to procure the
freedom of one of our officers, who had been taken
by the British ? "
" I should say it is what our young ladies have done
many a time," said Kinnison.
" Not under such circumstances," said Warner.
" But I'll tell you about it as it was told to me. Capt.
Plunkett was a bold-spirited Irishman, who held a com-
mission in our army. In some way or other, — it may
have been at the battle of Brandywine, — Plunkett was
taken by the enemy, and soon after placed in a prison
"Previous to that, he had made many friends among
the Quakers of that city ; and, indeed, his manners
made him a general favorite, wherever he went. Plunk-
ett suffered much in prison ; and his friends pitied him,
THE ESCAPE OF CAPT. PLUNKETT III
but dared not attempt his release. However, there was
a young girl of great beauty, and strength of mind, who
resolved to release the suffering soldier, at all hazards.
" It accidentally happened, that the uniform of Capt.
Plunkett's regiment bore a striking resemblance to that
of a British corps which was frequently set as a guard
over the prison in which he was confined. A new suit
of regimentals was in consequence procured, and con-
veyed, without suspicion of sinister design, to the
" On the judicious use of these rested the hopes of
the fair Friend to give him freedom. It frequently hap-
pened that officers of inferior grade, while their supe-
riors affected to shun all intercourse with the rebels,
would enter the apartments of the prisoners, and con-
verse with them with kindness and familiarity, and
then at their pleasure retire.
"Two sentinels constantly walked the rounds with-
out ; and the practice of seeing their officers walking in
and out of the interior prison became so familiar as
scarcely to attract notice, and constantly caused them
to give way without hesitation, as often as an officer
showed a disposition to retire.
" Capt. Plunkett took the advantage of this circum-
stance, and putting on his new coat, at the moment that
112 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
the relief of the guard was taking place, sallied forth,
twirling a switch carelessly about, and, ordering the ex-
terior door of the prison to be opened, walked without
opposition into the street.
" Repairing without delay to the habitation of his fair
friend, he was received with kindness, and for some
days secreted and cherished with every manifestation
of affectionate regard. To elude the vigilance of the
British Guards, if he attempted to pass into the country
in his present dress, was deemed impossible.
"Woman's wit, however, is never at a loss for con-
trivances, when swayed by the influences of love,
benevolence, or patriotism. All in this instance, may
have aided invention. Plunkett had three strong
claims in his favor : he was a handsome man, a soldier,
and an Irishman.
"The general propensity of the Quakers, in favor of
the Royal cause, exempted the sect in a great measure
from suspicion ; in so great a degree, indeed, that the
barriers of the city were generally intrusted to the care
of their members, as the best judges of the characters
of those persons who might be allowed to pass them
without injury to the British interests.
" A female Friend of humble origin, officiating as a
servant at a farm near the city, was in the family, on a
THE ESCAPE OF CAPT. PLUNKETT 113
visit to a relative. A pretext was formed to present
her with a new suit of clothes, in order to possess
that which she wore when she entered the city.
"Capt. Plunkett was immediately disguised as a
woman, and appeared at the barrier accompanied by his
anxious deliverer. ' Friend Roberts,' said the enterpris-
ing girl, 'may this damsel and myself pass to visit a
friend at a neighboring farm ? ' — i Certainly/ said
Roberts, 'go forward.'
" The city was speedily left behind, and Capt. Plunk-
ett found himself safe under the protection of Col
Allen M'Lean, a particular friend of his. Whether
Capt. Plunkett ever married the young girl who had
rendered him such service, I cannot say ; but you may
fancy he did, and it will make a pretty story."
"Well, now we have had enough about the ladies,"
"Yes," said Hand, "but we must have something
more about the men of the Revolution. Come, which
of you will tell something about George Washington, —
the Father of his Country ? "
"I can tell you of an important incident in the
career of Washington, which was told to me by a man
who witnessed a part of it, and heard the rest," said
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE
"What I am now about to tell you occurred in
the fall of 1782," began Colson. "Gen. Washington
was then at West Point. One evening he was in-
vited to a party given at the house of one Rugsdale,
an old friend. Several other officers were invited to
"The general seldom engaged in festivities at this
period ; but in respect to an old acquaintance, and,
it is whispered, to the solicitations of the daughter of
Rugsdale, he consented to honor the company with
" He started from West Point in a barge, with some
officers and men. As the barge gained the opposite
bank, one of the rowers leaped on shore, and made it
fast to the root of a willow which hung its broad
branches over the river. The rest of the party then
landed, and, uncovering, saluted their commander, who
returned their courtesy.
" ' By ten o'clock you may expect me/ said Wash-
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE I IS
ington. ' Be cautious ; look well that you are not sur-
prised. These are no times for trifling.'
"'Depend on us/ replied one of the party.
" ' I do,' he responded ; and, bidding them farewell,
departed along the bank of the river.
"After continuing his path some distance along the
river's side, he struck off into a narrow road, bordered
thickly with brushwood, -tinged with a thousand dyes
of departed summer ; here and there a gray crag peeped
out from the foliage, over which the green ivy and the
scarlet woodbine hung in wreathy dalliance ; at other
places the arms of the chestnut and mountain-ash met
in lofty fondness, casting a gloom deep almost as night.
" Suddenly a crashing among the trees was heard,
and like a deer an Indian girl bounded into the path,
and stood full in his presence. He started back with
surprise, laid his hand upon his sword ; but the Indian
only fell upon her knee, placed her finger on her lips,
and by a sign with her hand forbade him to proceed.
"'What seek you, my wild-flower?' said the general.
" She started to her feet, drew a small tomahawk
from her belt of wampum, and imitated the act of
scalping the enemy; then, again waving her hand as
forbidding him to advance, she darted into the bushes,
leaving him lost in amazement.
Il6 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"' There is danger,' said he to himself, after a short
pause, and recovering from his surprise. " That In-
dian's manner betokens no good. But my trust is in
God ; he has never deserted me ; " and, resuming the
path, he shortly reached the mansion of Rufus Rugs-
" His appearance was the signal of joy among the
party assembled, each of whom vied with the other to
do him honor. Although grave in council, and bold
in war, yet as the centre of a social gathering no one
knew better how to render himself agreeable. The old
were cheered by his consolatory word, the young by
his mirthful manner ; nor even in gallantry was he want-
ing, when it added to the cheerful spirit of the hour.
"The protestations of friendship and welcome were
warmly tendered to him by his host. Fast and thick
the guests were assembling ; the laugh" and mingling
music rose joyously around. The twilight was fast
emerging into night ; but a thousand sparkling lamps
of beauty gave a brilliancy of day to the scene ; all
was happiness ; bright eyes and blooming faces were
everywhere beaming. But alas ! a serpent was lurking
among the flowers.
" In the midst of the hilarity, the sound of a cannon
burst upon the ear, startling the guests and suspending
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE 1 17
the dance. Washington and the officers looked at each
other with surprise ; but their fears were quickly dis-
pelled by Rugsdale, who assured him it was only a
discharge of ordnance in honor of his distinguished
visitors. The joy of the moment was again resumed;
but the gloom of suspicion had fallen upon the spirit
of Washington, who sat in moody silence apart from
the happy throng.
"A silent tap upon the shoulder aroused him from
his abstraction, and looking up he perceived the person
of the Indian standing in the shadow of a myrtle-bush
close to his side.
" ' Ha ! again here ! ' he exclaimed with astonish-
ment ; but she motioned him to be silent, and, kneeling
at his feet, presented him with a bouquet of flowers.
Washington received it, and was about to place it in
his breast, when she grasped him firmly by the arm,
and, pointing to it, said in a whisper, 'Snake! Snake!'
and the next moment mingled with the company, who
appeared to recognize and welcome her as one well
known and esteemed.
" Washington regarded the bouquet with wonder ;
her words and singular appearance had, however, sunk
deeper into his heart, and, looking closer upon the nose-
gay, to his surprise he saw a small piece of paper in
Il8 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
the midst of the flowers. Hastily he drew it forth, and
confounded and horror-stricken, read, ' Beware ! you are
" It was now apparent that he was within the den of
the tiger ; but to quit abruptly might only draw the
consummation of treachery the speedier upon his head.
He resolved therefore that he would disguise his feel-
ings, and trust to that Power which had never forsaken
him. The festivities were again renewed, but almost
momentarily interrupted by a second sound of the
"The guests now began to regard each other with
distrust, and many and moody were the glances cast
upon Rugsdale, whose countenance began to show
symptoms of uneasiness, while ever and anon he looked
from the window out upon the broad green lawn which
extended to the river's edge, as if in expectation of
some one's arrival.
" ' What can detain them ? ' he muttered to himself.
' Can they have deceived me ? Why answer they not
the signal ? ' At that moment a bright flame rose from
the river, illuminating for a moment the surrounding
scenery, and showing a small boat filled with persons
making rapidly towards the shore. 'All's well,' he
continued ; ' in three minutes I shall be the possessor
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE 1 19
of a coronet, and the cause of the Republic be no
"Then gayly turning to Washington, he said, 'Come,
General, pledge me to the success of your arms/ The
eye of Rugsdale at that moment encountered the scru-
tinizing look of Washington, and sank to the ground ;
his hand trembled violently, even to so great a degree
as to partly spill the contents of the goblet.
" With difficulty he conveyed it to his lips ; then,
retiring to the window, he waved his hand, which ac-
tion was immediately responded to by a third sound of
the cannon. At the same moment the English anthem
of 'God save the King' burst in full volume upon
the ear ; and a band of men attired in British uniform,
with their faces hidden by masks, entered the apart-
"The American officers drew their swords. But
Washington, cool and collected, stood with his arms
folded upon his breast, and quietly remarked to them,
1 Be calm, gentlemen ; this is an honor we did not anti-
cipate/ Then, turning to Rugsdale, he said, 'Speak,
sir, what does this mean ? '
"Mt means/ replied the traitor, placing his hand
upon the shoulder of Washington, 'that you are my
prisoner. In the name of King George, I arrest you/
120 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" i Never ! ' exclaimed the general. ' We may be cut
to pieces, but surrender we will not ; therefore, give
way ! " And he waved his sword to the guard, who
stood with their muskets levelled, as if ready to fire,
should any attempt to escape. In an instant were
their weapons reversed ; and, dropping their masks,
to the horror of Rugsdale, and the agreeable sur-
prise of Washington, his own brave party, whom he
had left in charge of the barge, stood revealed before
" ' Seize that traitor ! ' exclaimed the commander.
" In ten minutes from this moment let him be a specta-
cle between the heavens and the earth.' The wife and
daughter clung to his knees in supplication ; but an
irrevocable oath had passed his lips that never should
treason receive his forgiveness after that of the mis-
"'For my own life/ he said, while tears rolled down
his noble countenance at the agony of the wife and
daughter, — "for my own life I heed not ; but the liberty
of my native land, the welfare of millions, demand this
sacrifice. For the sake of humanity, I pity him ; but
my oath is recorded, and now in the presence of Heaven
I swear I will not forgive him/
" Like a thunderbolt fell these words upon the wife
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE 121
and daughter. They sank lifeless into the hands of the
domestics ; and when they had recovered to conscious-
ness, Rugsdale had atoned for his treason by the sacri-
fice of his life.
" It appears that the Indian girl, who was an especial
favorite and domesticated in the family, had overheard
the intentions of Rugsdale to betray the American gen-
eral, and other valuable officers, that evening, into the
hands of the British, for which purpose they had been
invited to this 'feast of Judas/ Hating in her heart
the enemies of America, who had driven her tribe from
their native forests, she resolved to frustrate the design,
and consequently waylaid the steps of Washington, as we
have described ; but, failing in her noble purpose, she
had recourse to the party left in possession of the
" Scarcely had she given the information, and night
closed round, when a company of British soldiers were
discovered making their way rapidly towards the banks
of the Hudson, within a short distance of the spot
where the American party was waiting the return of
"Bold in the cause of liberty, and knowing that im-
mediate action alone could preserve him, they rushed
upon and overpowered them, bound them hand and foot,
122 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
placed them with their companions, and sent them to
the American camp at West Point.
" Having disguised themselves in the habiliments of
the enemy, they proceeded to the house of Rugsdale,
where at the appointed time and sign made known by
the Indian, they opportunely arrived to the relief of
Washington and the confusion of the traitor."
"Who told you that story?" inquired Kinnison.
" An old friend of mine named Buckram ; he was one
of the men who disguised themselves," replied Colson.
" I'm inclined to believe it's a doubtful story," said
Kinnison. " It's true enough to the character of
Washington. He never let his feelings swerve him
from the strict line of duty. But all that about
the Indian girl is somebody's invention, and the most
extraordinary thing of the kind I ever heard. I
don't doubt your friend's veracity, but it is a tough
"It's a very entertaining story," said Ransom, "and
I am inclined to credit it as truth."
"I'm satisfied of its truth," replied Colson ; "but I
wouldn't ask any of you to believe it if there is any
thing in it that you doubt."
" Three cheers for Gen. Washington ! " suggested
Hand, and the three cheers were given. A song was
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE 123
called for by several voices, and a young man volun-
teered to favor the company with " Liberty and Wash-
ington," the song which follows : —
" When Freedom, from her starry home,
Looked down upon the drooping world,
She saw a land of fairy bloom,
Where Ocean's sparkling billows curled ;
The sunbeams kissed its mighty floods,
And verdure clad its boundless plains —
But floods and fields and leafy woods
All wore alike a despot's chains !
* Be free ! ' she cried, ' land of my choice ;
Arise ! and put thy buckler on ;
Let every patriot raise his voice
For Liberty and Washington ! '
" The word went forth from hill to vale,
Each patriot heart leaped at the sound ; ♦
Proud Freedom's banner flapped the gale,
And Britain's chains fell to the ground.
Man stood erect in majesty,
The proud defender of his rights :
For where is he would not be free
From stern oppression's deadening blights ?
Be free, — be free then, happy land !
Forever beam the light that shone
Upon the firm and dauntless band
Who fought beside our Washington !
124 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Lo ! where the forest's children rove
Midst woody hill and rocky glen,
Wild as the dark retreats they loved —
What now are towns were deserts then.
The world has marked her onward way,
Beneath the smile of Liberty;
And Fame records the glorious day
Which made the western empire free.
Be free, — be free then, glorious land !
In union be thy millions one ;
Be strong in friendship's holy band,
Thy brightest star — our Washington ! "
This song, and the applause which succeeded, wak-
ened the sleeping fifer, Brown, who looked around him
as if wondering where he was.
" Hallo, old boy ! " cried Kinnison, " you look fright-
ened. What's the matter with you ? "
" I was dreaming,'' replied Brown. " I thought I
was at the battle of Lexington, and the roar of the
British guns was in my ears. But I find it is only
the roar of your voices. ' Liberty and Washington ' was
our war-cry on many a field, and I thought I heard it
" It was our peace cry," returned Hand.
Some of the young men were getting noisy, and
THE TREASON OF RUGSDALE 125
losing much of that bashfulness which had hitherto
kept them silent. In this state of things, Mr. Hand
was forced to entreat one of the veterans to amuse
them with some interesting incidents of the Revolution.
" There was a British officer, whose career has
often interested me," said Hand, "and that was Col.
Tarleton. He was a daring, fiery soldier, according to
all accounts of him ; but a savage man."
CRUELTY OF TARLETON
"Tarleton was a regular bloodhound," said Pitts,
" a savage, though among civilized men. I always
admired his fiery spirit and daring courage, but never
could regard him as a civilized warrior. I'll tell you
of an instance in which Tarleton displayed his charac-
ter in full.
" I had a Tory relative in North Carolina, who died
not long ago. When Col. Tarleton was encamped
west of the Haw River, Cornwallis received informa-
tion that Lee's fiery Legion had recrossed the Dan,
cut up several detachments of Tories, and was scouring
the neighboring country in search of parties of the
" The British general immediately sent information
to Col. Tarleton, to warn him to guard against sur-
prise. My Tory relative was the messenger, and he
told me about what he saw at Tarleton's camp.
"As soon (says the old Tory) as I came in view of
the British lines, I hastened to deliver myself up to the
CRUELTY OF TARLETON 127
nearest patrol, informing him that I was the bearer of
important despatches from Lord Cornwallis to Col.
Tarleton. The guard was immediately called out, the
commander of which, taking me in charge, carried me
at once to Tarleton's marquee.
" A servant informed him of my arrival, and returned
immediately with the answer that his master would
see me after a while, and that in the mean time I was
to await his pleasure where I then was. The servant
was a grave and sedate-looking Englishman, between
fifty and sixty years of age, and informed me that he
had known Col. Tarleton from his earliest youth, hav-
ing lived for many years in the family of his father,
a worthy clergyman, at whose particular request he
had followed the colonel to this country, with the
view that, if overtaken by disease and suffering in his
headlong career, he might have some one near him
who had known him ere the pranksome mischief of
the boy had hardened into the sterner vices of the
" ' He was always a wild blade, friend/ said the old
man, ' and many a heart -ache has he given us all ; but
he'll mend in time, I hope/
" Just then my attention was arrested by the violent
plungings of a horse, which two stout grooms, one on
128 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
each side, were endeavoring to lead to the spot where
we were standing.
"He was a large and powerful brute, beautifully
formed, and black as a crow, with an eye that seemed
actually to blaze with rage at the restraint which was
put upon him. His progress was one continued bound,
at times swinging the grooms clear from the earth, as
lightly as though they were but tassels hung on to the
huge Spanish bit, so that with difficulty they escaped
being trampled under foot.
" I asked the meaning of the scene, and was informed
that the horse was one that Tarleton had heard of as
being a magnificent animal, but one altogether unman-
ageable ; and so delighted was he with the description,
that he sent all the way down into Moore County where
his owner resided, and purchased him at the extrava-
gant price of one hundred guineas ; and that, moreover,
he was about to ride him that morning.
" ' Ride him ? ' said I, ' why, one had as well try to
back a streak of lightning ! The mad brute will cer-
tainly be the death of him.' — 'Never fear/ returned
my companion ; ' never fear_for him, his time has not
come yet/ By this time the horse had been brought
up to where we were ; the curtain of the marquee
was pushed aside, and my attention was drawn from
TARLETON BREAKING THE HORSE
CRUELTY OF TARLETON 1 29
the savage steed, to rivet itself upon his dauntless
" And a picture of a man he was. Rather below the
middle height, and with a face almost femininely beau-
tiful, Tarleton possessed a form that was a model of
manly strength and vigor. Without a particle of su-
perfluous flesh, his rounded limbs and full broad chest
seemed moulded from iron, yet at the same time dis-
playing all the elasticity which usually accompanies
elegance of proportion.
"His dress (strange as it may appear) was a jacket and
breeches of white linen, fitted to his form with the ut-
most exactness. Boots of russet leather were half-way
up the leg, the broad tops of which were turned down,
and the heels garnished with spurs of an immense size
and length of rowel. On his head was a low-crowned
hat curiously formed from the snow-white feathers of
the swan ; and in his hand he carried a heavy scourge,
with shot well twisted into its knotted lash.
"After looking around for a moment or two, as though
to command the attention of all, he advanced to the side
of the horse, and disdaining the use of the stirrup, with
one bound threw himself into the saddle, at the same
time calling on the grooms to let him go. For an in-
stant the animal seemed paralyzed ; then, with a per-
130 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
feet yell of rage, bounded into the air like a stricken
" The struggle for the mastery had commenced, —
bound succeeded bound with the rapidity of thought ;
every device which its animal instinct could teach was
resorted to by the maddened brute to shake off its
unwelcome burthen — but in vain. Its ruthless rider
proved irresistible, and, clinging like fate itself, plied
the scourge and rowel like a fiend.
"The punishment was too severe to be long withstood,
and at length, after a succession of frantic efforts, the
tortured animal, with a scream of agony, leaped forth
upon the plain, and flew across it with the speed of an
arrow. The ground upon which Tarleton had pitched
his camp was an almost perfectly level plain, something
more than half a mile in circumference.
" Around this, after getting him under way, he con-
tinued to urge his furious steed, amid the raptures and
shouts of the admiring soldiery, plying the whip and
spur at every leap, until, wearied and worn down with
its prodigious efforts, the tired creature discontinued all
exertion, save that to which it was urged by its mer-
" At length, exhausted from the conflict, Tarleton
drew up before his tent, and threw himself from his
CRUELTY OF TARLETON 131
saddle. The horse was completely subdued, and at the
word of command followed him like a dog. The victory
was complete. His eye of fire was dim and lustreless ;
drops of agony fell from his drooping front, while
from his laboring and mangled sides the mingled blood
and foam poured in a thick and clotted stream.
"Tarleton himself was pale as death, and, as soon as
he was satisfied with his success, retired and threw him-
self on his couch. In a short time I was called into his
presence, and delivered my despatches. Immediate or-
ders were issued to make preparation for a return to
Hillsborough, so soon as all the scouts had come in ;
and the next morning early found us again beyond the
Haw River — and in good time, too, for as the last files
were emerging from the stream, the advance of Lee's
Legion appeared on the opposite bank, and, with a
shout of disappointed rage, poured a volley into the
ranks of the retreating columns.
" I have witnessed many stirring scenes/' said the
old man, " both during the Revolution and since, but I
never saw one half so exciting as the strife between
that savage man and savage horse."
" It was almost equal to Alexander and Buce — Buce
— Alexander the Great, and that wild horse you know
he tamed when a boy — what was its name ? " asked
132 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Bucephalus/' suggested Hand.
" That's the name," replied Kinnison. " Tarleton
was more savage, however, than even that conqueror."
"The same relative told me of several other instances
in which Tarleton displayed his savage and merciless
nature," continued Pitts. " After the fall of Charleston,
a young man named Stroud, who had taken a British
protection, resumed arms in defence of his countrv.
Shortly after, Tarleton captured him, and, without any
shadow of a trial, hung him up by the public road, with
a label attached to his back, announcing that such
should be the fate of the man who presumed to cut him
" The body was exposed in that manner for more
than three weeks, when the sister of the young man
ventured out, cut the body down, and gave it decent
burial. At another time, a young man named Wade,
who had been induced to join Tarleton's Legion, de-
serted, to unite with his countrymen. , He was taken,
tried, and sentenced to receive a thousand lashes. Of
course the poor fellow died under the punishment."
"The wretch! " exclaimed Hand. "I suppose if he
had fallen into the hands of our men, they would have
strung him up without mercy."
" He never would have fallen alive into the hands of
CRUELTY OF TARLETON 133
our men," replied Pitts. "Such men know that they
must expect vengeance. He came near losing his life
in various battles. At Cowpens, Col. Washington cut
him with his sabre, and would have killed him if he
had turned and fought like a man ; at the Waxhaws,
Capt. Adam Wallace made a thrust at Tarleton that
would have done for him, if a British trooper had not
struck Wallace to the earth just at the time.' ,
"There were many Tarletons among the enemy,"
said Colson, " so far as cruelty is considered ; but most
of them lacked his activity, and were therefore less
" It seemed as if Tarleton never aimed to win
merely, but to destroy. He said that severity alone
could establish the regal authority in America. If a
party of Americans were surprised, they were not
made prisoners, but slaughtered while asking for quar-
ter. He was a tiger that was never satisfied until he
had mangled and devoured his enemy."
And so the veterans went on, talking of the cruelties
of Tarleton, giving his character no more quarter than
he had given his unfortunate prisoners.
"There was another British officer in these parts
who was nearly equal to Tarleton," said Davenport ;
" I mean Gen. Grey, — the man who massacred our
134 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
men at Paoli and Tappan. Both these were night
attacks, it is true, and we always expect bloody work
on such an occasion.
" But it is known that our men were bayoneted
while calling for quarter, which can't be justified. Did
Wayne slaughter the enemy at Stony Point ? No : he
spared them, although they were the men who had
acted otherwise at Paoli."
" Grey was known as the no-quarter general, I
believe," said Hand.
"Yes," replied Davenport; "and he was always
selected to do the bloodiest work, — the hangman of
the enemy, as we might say."
"Hang Tarleton and Grey! " cried Hand. "Tell us
something of our own men. Did either of you ever
see Henry Lee ? He was always one of my favorite
" Oh ! yes," said Kinnison, " I frequently saw Lee,
before he went South with his Legion. He was a
noble-looking young man, with the judgment of a skil-
ful general, and the fire of a natural soldier. I knew
several of his men, who were with him through the
whole campaign, under Gen. Greene.
" You may have heard what Greene said of him.
Speaking of the principal officers under him, he said
Col. Lee was the eye of the army, and Col. Washington
its arm ; and he afterwards stated that he was more
indebted to Lee's judgment and activity for success
than to the qualities of any other officer.
" It was Lee who advised Greene to recross the Dan,
and pursue Cornwallis in North Carolina. Even Tarle-
ton was very careful to keep out of the Legion's reach,
when numbers were any thing like equal."
" I always liked Henry Lee. But he was too severe
sometimes. See how he slaughtered the Tories with
Col. Pyle at their head."
136 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Yes, he cut the poor rascals to pieces," said Pitts.
"I heard that about three hundred out of four hundred
men were butchered on that occasion."
" It's a fact," replied Kinnison ; " but I can't think Lee
was too cruel there. You see, it's often necessary to
strike a heavy blow to effect an object ; and Lee wanted
to put an end to the movements of the Tories, who were
collecting in great numbers to join Cornwallis. There
was no better way than the summary one he adopted,
of making them feel the consequence of being traitors
to their country and to freedom."
"It served them just right."
" I don't defend the Tories," interrupted Hand ;
" but I think in many instances great injustice was
done to them. Many of them were honest, true-
hearted men, who didn't think as the Whigs did, or
whose thinking did not lead them to the same con-
clusion. I scarcely think such men could be called
traitors to their country."
" No ; you talk very well ; but if you had suffered
from them, you would have hated the Tories just as
much as we did."
" Well, don't dispute about it," said Kinnison.
"We were talking of Col. Henry Lee and his brave
Legion. Cornwallis said he never felt secure while
LEE'S LEGION 137
Lee was anywhere in his neighborhood ; and that he
knew how to seek the weak points of an enemy, and
strike a blow, as well as any partisan officer he ever
knew. He feared Lee as much as Tarleton feared the
night attacks of the swamp-fox Marion.
" My friends in the Legion told me that Lee had as
daring and enterprising officers under his command
as the service could boast. Captains Rudolph, Arm-
strong, and O'Neil, and many others, were the boldest
kind of partisans. Rudolph was a very small-sized man,
but one of that sleepless, open-eyed, and determined
kind that seem born for enterprise and command. He
led the forlorn-hope in the attack on Paulus Hook, and
at the sieges of the many forts in Georgia and the
Carolinas ; and he it was who led the famous charge
with the bayonet at Eutaw Springs."
" I saw him soon after he joined the Legion," added
Hanson. "Col. Lee considered him his best officer,
" Yes," said Kinnison, " he was one of the best
officers in the army, conducting sieges as well as he
did partisan movements. Not long before the British
evacuated Charleston, Capt. Rudolph performed two
remarkable exploits that tell the character of the man
better than words can.
138 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" The left of the British line was at a place called
the Quarter House, near Charleston, on what is called
the Neck. To protect this post on the water-side, the
enemy had a large armed galley, well manned and
equipped. Capt. Rudolph, gaining a knowledge of the
exact position of the galley and her force, formed a
plan to capture or at least destroy her.
"He chose only sixteen men, the most daring in
the Legion, all of whom were eager for such enter-
prises. A night was fixed upon, and boats prepared.
There was no moon upon that night, which made it
favorable to secrecy.
" At the appointed time, Rudolph and his men rowed
with muffled oars and ready weapons towards the place
where the galley was anchored. They had to pass very
near the British sentinels on the Xeck, but were not
discovered ; and they reached the side of the galley
before any of the British were aware that the enterprise
" Twenty-six men who were aboard the galley were
made prisoners with scarcely any resistance, so sudden
was the attack. These prisoners were hurried into the
boats ; and then Capt. Rudolph, seeing that he couldn't
get the galley away from the place in time to get out of
the enemy's reach, set fire to her.
LEE'S LEGION 139
" The party then gave a shout, and pulled away
towards the shore from which they had started. The
enemy were alarmed by the firing of the sentinels, the
glare of the burning galley, and the shout of the daring
band, and fired some of their artillery after Rudolph.
But it was too late ; the Americans escaped, and the
galley was burned to the water's edge."
"That was equal to Decatur's burning of the Phila-
delphia," said Hand.
"It was," replied Kinnison. "Rudolph was very
much of a Decatur in spirit. Soon after the enterprise
I have just mentioned, Capt. Rudolph attacked a party
of black dragoons, who were out foraging for the
British. The blacks were defeated, and many of them
taken. In the course of the fight, Rudolph engaged
one of the largest-sized and boldest of the black
dragoons in a regular hand-to-hand combat, and in a
very short time dismounted and captured him."
"The war in the Southern States had more of ro-
mance and daring enterprise connected with it than the
war in the North," remarked Hand; "though it must
be owned, that the movements of the Northern armies
were of more consequence in the long-run."
" Yes, there was more that most young men like to
read about in the Southern war," replied Warner :
140 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" plenty of daring movements, but no Canadian expedi-
tion, nor Saratoga."
"It's a pity there are no soldiers of the Southern
army here to reply to you," responded Kinnison. " I
know, from what I've heard, there never were better
soldiers than the men who fought under Lee and
Morgan ; and I scarcely think that George Wash-
ington himself was a better general than Nathaniel
" But I was going to tell you of some other officers
of Lee's Legion. There was Lieut. Manning, an Irish-
man, who was very much of a favorite among his
brother officers on account of his good-humor in com-
pany, and his coolness and bravery in battle. Many
anecdotes^are told of him which speak his praise ; and
if agreeable, I'll tell some of them to you as they were
told to me."
" Very agreeable," said Hand.
"The kind of stories I like to hear," added another
of the young men.
"Well, you shall hear, if I can recollect aright," con-
tinued Kinnison. " The intrigues and efforts of Lord
Cornwallis, to excite insurrection, backed by a very
formidable force, had produced among the Highland
emigrants a spirit of revolt, which it required all the
LEE'S LEGION 141
energies of Gen. Greene to counteract before it could
"The zeal and activity of Lieut. -Col. Lee, united to
his acuteness and happy talent of obtaining intelligence
of the most secret intentions of the enemy, pointed
him out as the man for this important service. He
was accordingly selected, with orders to impede the
intercourse of Lord Cornwallis with the disaffected,
and promptly to cut off every party that should take
up arms for Britain.
" Constantly on the alert, he was equally anxious to
give security to his own command, while he harassed
the enemy. A secure position was, on one occasion,
taken near a forked road, one division of which led
directly to Lord Cornwallis's camp, about six miles dis-
tant. The ground was chosen in the dusk of evening ;
and, to prevent surprise, patrols of cavalry were kept
out on each fork during the night.
"An order for a movement before day had been
communicated to every individual, and was executed
with so little noise and confusion, that Lieut. Manning,
waking at early dawn, found himself, excepting one
soldier, left alone. Stephen Green, the attendant of
Capt. Cams, lay near him, resting on the portmanteau
of his superior, and buried in profound sleep.
142 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Being awakened, he was ordered to mount and fol-
low, while Manning, hastening toward the fork, hoped
to fall upon the track, and speedily rejoin his regiment.
Much rain had fallen during the night, so that, finding
both roads equally cut up, Manning chose at hazard,
and took the wrong one.
" He had not proceeded far, before he saw, at the
door of a log house, a rifleman leaning on his gun, and
apparently placed as a sentinel. Galloping up to him,
he inquired if a regiment of horse and body of infantry
had passed that way.
" ' Oh, ho ! ' cried the man, whistling loudly (which
brought out a dozen others, completely armed, and car-
rying each a red rag in his hat), 'you, I suppose, are
one of Greene's men ? ' The badge which they bore
marked their principles.
" Without the slightest indication of alarm, or even
hesitation, Manning pointed to the portmanteau carried
by Green, and exclaimed, ' Hush, my good fellow ! I
have there what will ruin Greene ; point out the road to
Lord Cornwallis's army, for all depends upon early intel-
ligence of its contents.'
"' You are an honest fellow!' was the general cry,
'and have left the rebels just in time, for the whole
settlement are in arms to join Col. Pyle to-morrow
LEE'S LEGION 143
(naming the place of rendezvous), where Col. Tarleton
will meet and conduct us to camp/
" ' Come/ said the man to whom he had first spoken,
1 take a drink. Here's confusion to Greene, and success
to the King and his friends. This is the right road,
and you will soon reach the army ; or rather let me
conduct you to it myself/
"'Not for the world, my dear fellow,' replied Man-
ning ; ' your direction is plain, and I can follow it. I
will never consent that a faithful subject of his Majesty
should be subjected to the dangers of captivity or death
on my account. If we should fall in with a party of
rebels (and we cannot say they are not in the neighbor-
hood now), we should both lose our lives. I should be
hanged for desertion, and you for aiding me to reach
the British army.'
"This speech produced the effect he desired. Man-
ning rode off amid the cheers of the company, and,
when out of sight, crossed to the other road, and, ur-
ging his horse to full speed, in a short time overtook and
communicated the interesting intelligence to his com-
" Lee was then meditating an attack upon Tarleton,
who had crossed the Haw River to support the insur-
gents ; but, perceiving the vast importance of crushing
144 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
the revolt in the bud, he informed Gen. Greene of his
plan by a confidential messenger, and hastened to the
point of rendezvous, where Pyle, with upwards of four
hundred men, had already arrived.
" You have heard of the bloody work that ensued.
Pyle and his Tories believed to the last that the sol-
diers of the Legion were Tarleton's men, and were
therefore easily surprised. About three hundred of
them were killed ; the rest fled, or were made prisoners.
"I do not justify such butchery ; but our men ought
to be excused, according to the laws of war, when we
consider that these same Tories and their redcoat
friends never gave the Whigs quarter in case of a sur-
prise, and that some such slaughter was necessary to
make them feel that they couldn't murder without pay-
ing for it."
"We have already argued that question," said Daven-
port, " and in my mind it is a settled point that Lee
was right." Nobody seemed disposed to revive the ar-
gument, and Kinnison continued: —
" In this instance you see how ready Manning was to
break a net or weave one. I can tell you of another
instance in which he showed his daring courage, and
quickness of resource in time of danger.
" At the battle of Eutaw, after the British line had
LEE'S LEGION 145
been broken, and the Old Buffs, a Tory regiment that
had boasted of the extraordinary feats that they were to
perform, were running from the field, Manning sprang
forward in pursuit, directing the platoon which he com-
manded to follow him.
" He did not cast an eye behind him until he found
himself near a large brick house, into which the York
Volunteers, commanded by Cruger, were retiring. The
British were on all sides of him, and not an American
soldier nearer than one hundred and fifty or two hun-
" He did not hesitate a moment, but, springing at an
officer who was near him, seized him by the collar, and
exclaiming in a harsh tone of voice, ' Sir, you are my
prisoner/ wrested his sword from his grasp, dragged
him by force from the house, and, keeping his body as a
shield of defence from the heavy fire sustained from the
windows, carried him off without receiving any injury.
" Manning has often related, that at the moment
when he expected that his prisoner would have made
an effort for his liberty, he, with great solemnity, com-
menced an enumeration of his titles : — i I am Sir
Henry Barry, Deputy Adjutant General of the British
Army, Captain in the 5 2d Regiment, Secretary to the
Commandant of Charleston.'
146 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" 'Enough, enough, sir,' said Manning, 'you are just
the man I was looking for. Fear nothing for your life :
you shall screen me from danger, and I will take special
care of you. 1 He had retired in this manner some dis-
tance from the brick house, when he saw Capt. Robert
Joiett, of the Virginia Line, engaged in single combat
with a British officer.
"They had selected each other for battle a little
before ; the American armed with a broad-sword, the
Briton with a musket and bayonet. As they came to-
gether, a thrust was made at Joiett, which he parried ;
and being too near each other to use their weapons with
effect, they dropped them, and resorted to those with
which they had been furnished by nature.
"They were both men of great bulk and vigor, and
while struggling, each anxious to bring the other to the
ground, a grenadier who saw the contest ran to the as-
sistance of his officer, made a lunge with his bayonet,
missed Joiett's body, but drove the weapon beyond the
curve into his coat.
" In attempting to withdraw the entangled bayonet,
he threw both combatants to the ground ; when getting
it free, he raised it deliberately, determined not to fail
again in his purpose, but to transfix Joiett. It was at
this moment that Manning approached, — not near
LEE'S LEGION 147
enough, however, to reach the grenadier with his
" In order to gain time, and to arrest the stroke, he
exclaimed in an angry and authoritative tone, 'You
brute, will you murder the gentleman ? ' The soldier,
supposing J^imself addressed by one of his own officers,
suspended the blow, and looked around to see the
person who had thus spoken to him.
" Before he could recover from the surprise into
which he had been thrown, Manning, now sufficiently
near, struck him with his sword across the eyes, and
felled him to the ground ; while Joiett disengaged him-
self from his opponent, and snatching up the musket,
as he attempted to rise, laid him dead by a blow from
the butt-end of it.
" Manning was of inferior size, but strong, and re-
markably well formed. Joiett was almost a giant.
This probably led Barry, who could not have wished
the particulars of his capture to be commented on, to
reply, when asked by his brother officers how he came
to be taken, ' I was overpowered by a huge Virginian. ' "
"Manning was a cool and ready soldier," observed
Pitts. " I saw him once in Philadelphia, before his
Legion went south. He had a most determined look
in spite of the good-humored leer of his eye.
148 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"He was one of the last men I should have wished
to provoke: he was a complete Irishman, — blunders
and all. I heard of his telling a black servant who was
walking barefoot on the snow, to put on pair of stock-
ings the next time he went barefoot.
" Great things were done by the soldiers^as well as
by the officers, of that Legion," said Kinnison. "At
the siege of the Stockade Fort at Ninety-Six, Col. Lee,
who had charge of all the operations of the siege,
thought that the fort might be destroyed by fire.
"Accordingly Sergeant Whaling, a non-commissioned
officer whose term of service was about to expire, with
twelve privates, was detached to perform the service.
Whaling saw that he was moving to certain death, as
the approach to the fort was to be made in open day,
and over clear, level ground which offered no cover.
" But he was a brave man, and had served from the
commencement of the war. It was his greatest pride
never to shrink from his duty. He dressed himself
neatly, took an affectionate but cheerful leave of his
comrades, swung his musket over his shoulder, and,
with a bundle of blazing pine torches in his hand,
sprang forward, followed by his little band.
" They reached the stockade before the enemy fired
a shot. But a deliberate aim killed Whaling and all
LEE'S LEGION 149
his men except one, who escaped unhurt. It was the
opinion of most of the officers of the Legion, that
Whaling's life was sacrificed in attempting to carry-
out a rash idea. But we ought not to judge Col. Lee
without being more certain of the facts."
" Still, we know enough to say it was a very wild idea
to send men up to a fort in open day, and over ground
where they could have no cover," remarked Ransom.
" I know Gen. John Stark would never have sacrificed
his men in that way."
" Perhaps," said Hand, coming to the rescue of his
hero, -"a desperate measure was necessary. I have
heard that at the time, Lord Rawdon was marching
very rapidly to relieve the garrison, and Col. Lee
thought that every means should be tried to reduce
the fort ere the siege was abandoned."
"Very true," said Kinnison. "As I stated before,
we should never judge commanders without knowing
the facts of the case. Never say a man has committed
a fault, unless it sticks out plain to the eye.
" Harry Lee was, as a common thing, very sparing of
the lives of his men, and he never made any military
movement without very strong reasons, as Gen. Greene
himself would have told you. Whaling was a brave
man and a strict soldier, or he would never have dared
ISO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
to approach the fort in such a way. But, as I said
before, they were all daring men that belonged to Lee's
" There were two soldiers of the cavalry, named
Bulkley and Newman, who had been the warmest and
the closest friends from infancy. They had both joined
the army at the same time, that is, at the commence-
ment of the war ; and through the greater part of the
Southern campaign, they fought side by side, and each
one strove to lighten the sufferings of the other.
Brothers could not have been more attached to each
" In the fight at Quimby, where Capt. Armstrong
made a famous dragoon charge upon the Nineteenth
British regiment, the friends were among the foremost.
The dragoons had to pass a bridge in which the enemy
had made a large gap. Capt. Armstrong led the way,
but not more than a dozen men followed to support him.
11 At the head of this little band, Armstrong cut his
way through the entire British regiment. But then a
well-aimed fire brought down several of the dragoons.
Bulkley and Newman were mortally wounded at the
same fire, and fell, locked in each other's arms."
"A kind of Damon and Pythias friendship," observed
LEE'S LEGION 151
"Yes, I believe they would have died for each
other," replied Kinnison. " A friend told me that they
were never separated, in camp or field. If one was
sick, the other watched by his side.
" I had a comrade of the same kind during the greater
part of my life : his name was Williams, and he was
one of the best-hearted men I ever knew. We fought
through the Revolution together, and both entered the
army in 18 12. But I lost him during the attack on
Fort Erie. Poor Williams was killed by a shell.
" It has been a long while since then, but I still feel
as if I had lost a part of my heart when he fell. Poor
Williams ! " and Kinnison appeared to be busy with
the mournful recollections of the " friends of his better
"My favorite leader was Mad Anthony Wayne,"
said Colson. " A better soldier, or a more wide-awake
general, was not to be found in the army during the
" I know Gen. Wayne was a brave soldier. Did any
of you ever hear or read an account of the night-attack
on Gen. Wayne, near Savannah, just before the close
of the war?" inquired Davenport.
THE ATTACK ON GEN. WAYNE
" One of Parker's Light Infantry told me all about
it," said Colson. "He says that Gen. Wayne, with
eight hundred men, — infantry, artillery, and dragoons,
— were encamped at Gibbons's Plantation, about five
miles from Savannah, where the British were posted.
" It was the early part of February. Gen. Wayne
had no idea that an enemy was nearer than Savannah.
But the brave Creeks had been taken into the pay of
the British ; and their chief, Gurestessego, formed a
plan to surprise the Continentals.
" Never w r as an attack better planned : our men were
sleeping w r ith a feeling of security, when, about mid-
night, the Creeks fell upon the camp. The sentinels
were captured, and the Indians entered the camp, and
secured the cannon ; but while they were trying to
make the cannon serviceable, instead of following up
their success, Wayne and his men recovered from
their surprise, and w r ere soon in order for battle.
"Parker's Infantry charged with the bayonet, and
THE ATTACK ON GEN. WAYNE 153
after a short struggle recovered the cannon. Gunn,
with his dragoons, followed up the charge, and the
Creeks were forced to give way. Gen. Wayne en-
countered the chief Gurestessego in hand-to-hand com-
bat ; the general with sword and pistols, and the chief
with musket, tomahawk, and knife.
" The struggle was fierce but short. The chief was
killed, and Wayne escaped without any serious injury.
Seventeen of the Creeks fell, and the rest escaped in
the darkness, leaving their packhorses and a considera-
ble quantity of peltry in the hands of the victors.
" Wayne conjectured at once that the Indians would
not have dared to make an attack without being
assured of the approach of the British or Tories to
support them, and a. rumor spread that Col. Browne
was marching towards the camp for that purpose. In
the fight, Wayne had captured twelve young warriors,
whom he doomed to death to prevent them joining the
"This was a rash act. The rumor of Browne's
approach was false, but the young warriors had been
sacrificed before this was known. Gen. Wayne felt
many a pang for this rash command, as he was a man
who never would shed blood without it was necessary
in the performance of his duty."
154 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Why didn't he send the Indians to Greene's camp,
or some other American post ? " inquired Hand.
" There was no time or men to spare if the rumor
had been true," said Colson. " Most commanders
would have acted as Wayne did, under the circum-
stances. Though I think the execution of the order
might have been delayed until the enemy came in
" The general, no doubt, had good reason for his
course," said Kinnison. " He believed it to be his
duty to do every thing for the safety of the men he
commanded ; and, expecting to be assailed by a much
larger force than his own, he did right to destroy the
foes he had in camp.
"I know it must have shocked his feelings to give
the order, but he was a man who couldn't shrink or be
driven from the plain line of duty. Now, there was
that affair with the Pennsylvania Line at Morristown.
" I've heard several men who were at Morristown at
the time, say that Wayne was wrong in daring to
oppose the mutineers ; that their demands were just
and reasonable, and he ought rather to have led than
" Can't you give us an account of that mutiny at
Morristown ?" inquired Hand.
THE MUTINY AT MORRISTOWN
"I can tell you what was told me by men who
engaged in it," said Kinnison. "For myself, I was at
that time with the Massachusetts troops at Middle-
brook. The Pennsylvania Line, numbering about two
thousand men, was stationed at the old camp-ground at
" Most of these men believed that their term of ser-
vice expired at the end of the year 1779 J though Con-
gress and some of the generals thought otherwise, or
that the men were enlisted to serve until the end of
"This difficulty about the term of enlistment was
the seed of the mutiny. But there were many other
things that would have roused any other men to re-
volt. The Pennsylvanians had not received any pay
for twelve months, and during the severest part of the
fall they suffered for the want of food and clothing.
" To expect men to bear such treatment, and remain
in the army when there was the slightest pretext for
I$6 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
leaving it, was building on a sandy foundation. Patri-
otism and starvation were not so agreeable to common
soldiers as they were to some members of Congress.
"Even some of the officers — men who depended
upon their pay to support their families while fighting
for liberty — grumbled at the conduct of those who
should have supplied them.
"This gave the men courage, and they determined
to act boldly. They appointed a sergeant-major their
major-general ; and at a given signal on the morning
of the ist of January, the whole line, except a part of
three regiments, paraded under arms and without their
regular officers, marched to the magazines, supplied
themselves with provisions and ammunition, and
secured six field-pieces, to which they attached horses
from Gen. Wayne's stables.
"The regular officers collected those who had not
joined the mutineers, and tried to restore order; but
some of the mutineers fired, killed Capt. Billings, and,
I believe, wounded several of his men. They then
ordered those who remained with the officers to join
them, or meet death by the bayonet, and they obeyed.
"Then Gen. Wayne appeared, and, by threats and
offers of better treatment, endeavored to put an end to
the revolt. The men all idolized Wayne : they would
THE MUTINY AT MORRISTOWN 157
have followed him almost anywhere ; but they would
not listen to his remonstrances on this occasion.
" Wayne then cocked his pistol as if he meant to
frighten them back to duty ; but they placed their bay-
onets to his breast, and told him that, although they
loved and respected him, if he fired his pistols, or
attempted to enforce his commands, they would put
him to death.
" Gen. Wayne then saw their determination, and did
not fire, but he appealed to their patriotism ; and they
spoke of the impositions of Congress. He told them
that their conduct would strengthen the enemy. But
ragged clothes and skeleton forms were arguments
much stronger than any Wayne could bring against
them. The men declared their intention to march to
Congress at Philadelphia, and demand a redress of
" Wayne then changed his policy, and resolved to
go with the current and guide it. He supplied the
men with provisions to prevent them from committing
depredations on the people of the country, and marched
with them -to Princeton, where a committee of ser-
geants drew up a list of demands.
"They wanted those men to be discharged whose
term of service had expired, and the whole Line to
158 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
receive their pay and clothing. Gen. Wayne had no
power to agree to these demands, and he referred
further negotiation to the Government of Pennsylvania,
and a committee to be appointed by Congress.
"But the cream of the matter is to come. The news
of the revolt reached Gen. Washington and Sir Henrv
Clinton on the same day. Washington ordered a
thousand men to be ready to march from the High-
lands of the Hudson to quell the revolt, and called a
council of war to decide on further measures.
" This council sanctioned Gen. Wayne's course, and
decided to leave the matter to the settlement of the
Government of Pennsylvania and Congress. You see,
Gen. Washington had long been worried by the sleepy
way Congress did business, and he thought this affair
would wake them up to go to work in earnest.
"The British commander-in-chief thought he could
gain great advantage by the revolt, and so he very
promptly sent two emissaries, — one a British sergeant,
and the other a Tory named Ogden, — to the muti-
neers, offering them pardon for past offences, full pay
for their past service, and the protection of the British
Government, if they would lay down their arms, and
march to New York.
" So certain was Clinton that his offers would be
THE" MUTINY AT MORRISTOWN 1 59
accepted, that he crossed over to Staten Island with
a large body of troops, to act as circumstances might
require. But he was as ignorant of the character of
our men as King George himself. They wanted to be
fed and clothed, and wanted their families provided
for ; but they were not soldiers fighting merely for pay.
" Every man of them knew what freedom was, and
had taken the field to secure it for his country. You
may judge how such men received Clinton's proposals.
They said they w r ere not Arnolds, and that America
had no truer friends than themselves ; and then seized
the emissaries and their papers, and handed them over
to Wayne, and the mercy of a court-martial.
" The men were tried as spies, found guilty, and
executed. A reward which had been offered for their
apprehension was tendered to the mutineers who had
seized them. But they refused it. One of them said
that necessity had wrung from them the act demand-
ing justice from Congress, but they wanted no reward
for doing their duty to their bleeding country.
" Congress appointed a commissioner to meet the
mutineers at Princeton, and soon after their demands
were satisfied. A large part of the Line was disbanded
for the winter, and the remainder was well supplied
with provisions and clothing. About the middle of
160 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
January, the greater part of the New Jersey Line,
which was encamped near Pompton, followed the
example of the Pennsylvanians, and revolted ; but
different measures were taken to quell them. Gen.
Washington ordered Gen. Robert Howe to march
with five hundred men, and reduce the rebels to
" Howe marched four days through a deep snow,
and reached the encampment of the Jersey troops on
the 27th of January. His men were paraded in line,
and he then ordered the mutineers to appear unarmed
in front of their huts, within five minutes. They
hesitated, but on a second order they obeyed.
" Three of the chief movers in the revolt were
tried, and sentenced to be shot. Two of them suf-
fered, and the third was pardoned as being less to
blame. The two who were shot fell by the hands
of twelve of the most guilty of the mutineers. That,
I think, was a very severe punishment.
" Gen. Howe then addressed them by platoons, and
ordered their officers to resume their commands.
Clinton had again sent an emissary to make offers to
the mutineers ; but the man heard of the fate of the
Tory and the British sergeant, and he took his papers
to Gen. Howe instead of to the men.
THE MUTINY AT MORRISTOWN l6l
"These Jersey mutineers were reduced to submis-
sion without much difficulty. But the Pennsylvanians
displayed a determination to fight if their demands
were not satisfied, and so they gained their point/'
" Perhaps," said Hand, "the Jersey troops had not
so much reason to revolt as the Pennsylvanians."
"I know they had not so much reason," replied
Kinnison. "They had suffered as much for want of
food and clothing, but their term of service was more
" How nobly the men treated the offers of Sir Henry
Clinton!" said Hand. "I should think the British
Government might have learned from that affair, the
spirit of the Americans, and the futility of efforts to
conquer men with such motives and sentiments."
" They might have learned it if they had wished to
learn," explained Pitts. "They might have learned the
same thing from the Boston Tea-Party. But they
determined that they had a right to act towards us
just as they pleased, and their pride was blind to
" One may look through Greek and Roman history
in vain, to find men holding such noble and patriotic
sentiments, while harassed with want of every kind,"
continued Hand, growing eloquent.
1 62 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"Ah! those were times to try the metal men were
made of," said Colson. "The men who took up the
sword and gun for freedom were resolved to win their
country's safety, or die in the attempt ; and such men
will not be bought at any price. Arnold was a mere
soldier — never a patriot/'
" I might dispute that last statement," replied Daven-
port, "but I'll let it go."
"Come, Brown, more music," exclaimed Warner.
"The dinner and the dull conversation make some of
us drowsy. Stir us up, man ! "
"There's nothing like the fife and drum for rousing
men. I hate these finnicking, soft, and love-sick in-
struments, such as pianos, guitars, and some others
they play on nowadays. There is no manliness about
Brown and Hanson, having produced their old mar-
tial instruments, then struck up " The Star-spangled
Banner," the best of the national anthems of America.
Soon after the last note of the fife had ended, Hand,
without invitation, struck up the anthem itself, and
sang the words with great force, the whole company
joining in the two last lines of every stanza.
The music and the anthem thoroughly roused the
old as well as the young members of the company, and
THE MUTINY AT MORRISTOWX 163
at its conclusion three cheers were lustily given for
the stars and stripes. One of the young men then
said that he had a song to sing, which would be new to
the company, but still was not an original composition.
The music was stirring and appropriate. The words
were as follows : —
" Freemen ! arise, and keep your vow !
The foe are on our shore ;
And we must win our freedom now,
Or yield forevermore.
" The share will make a goodly glaive —
Then tear it from the plough !
Lingers there here a crouching slave?
Depart, a recreant thou !
"Depart, and leave the field to those
Determined to be free,
Who burn to meet their vaunting foes
And strike for liberty.
" Why did the Pilgrim cross the wave ?
Say, was he not your sire ?
And shall the liberty he gave
Upon his grave expire?
" The stormy wave could not appall,
Nor where the savage trod;
He braved them all, and conquered all,
For freedom and for God.
164 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" We fight for fireside and for home,
For heritage, for altar;
And, by the God of yon blue dome,
Not one of us shall falter !
" We'll guard them, though the foemen stood
Like sand-grains on our shore,
And raise our angry battle-flood,
And whelm the despots o'er.
"We've drawn the sword, and shrined the sheath
Upon our fathers' tomb;
And when the foe shall sleep in death,
We'll sheathe it o'er their doom.
" Firm be your step, steady your file,
Unbroken your array;
The spirits of the blest shall smile
Upon our deeds to-day.
" Unfurl the banner of the free
Amidst the battle's cloud;
Its folds shall wave to Liberty,
Or be to us a shroud.
" O'er those who fall, a soldier's tear
Exulting shall be shed ;
We'll bear them upon honors bier,
To sleep in honor's bed.
THE MUTINY AT MORRISTOWN 165
"The maiden, with her hurried breath
And rapture-beaming eye,
Shall all forget the field of death
To bless the victory.
" The child, oh ! he will bless his sire,
The mother bless her son ;
And God, He will not frown in ire,
When such a field is won."
"Good!" exclaimed Kinnison, when the song was
done. " That is a war-song of 'j6, I know."
"It is," replied the singer; "and, judging from what
I have heard you say,^ it expresses in it the feeling
of the period."
"A truce to songs and music," cried Davenport.
" I never was fond of any kind of music but that of
the fife and drum, and I never needed that to put
me in a condition to stand fire."
"You are too gloomy," said Kinnison.
" I have had cause enough for gloominess," replied
"But I wanted to talk to you about something —
and that was my reason for checking you. You talk
so much about the treason of Arnold, and say that he
never was a patriot, that I wanted to tell you of
1 66 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
another man's treason ; not to excuse Arnold, but to
show you that he wasn't alone in preferring the
British side of the question, and that there were bolder
patriots than Paulding, Williams, and Van Wert, the
captors of Andre."
" We know there were plenty of traitors and
patriots in the country, without a showing," said
Kinnison ; "but go on with your narrative."
" But this will prove that all censure should not be
heaped upon Arnold's head, nor all the praise on the
militia-men of Tarrytown," observed Davenport.
THE TREASON OF BETTYS
"When the Revolutionary War broke out," said
Davenport, beginning his narrative, " there was a man
named Joseph Bettys, who lived in Ballston, N.Y.,
remarkable for his courage, strength, and intelligence.
Col. Ball of the Continental forces saw that Bettys
might be of great service to our cause, and succeeded
in enlisting him as a sergeant.
" But he was soon afterwards reduced to the ranks,
on account of his insolence to an officer, who, he said,
had abused him without cause. Col. Ball was not
acquainted with the facts of the affair, but being
unwilling to lose so active and courageous a man, he
procured him the rank of a sergeant in the fleet
commanded by Gen. Arnold, on Lake Champlain.
" Bettys was as skilful a seaman as could be found
in the service, and during the desperate fight between
the fleets, which occurred in the latter part of 1776,
he rendered more service than any other man except
168 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" He fought until every commissioned officer on
board of his vessel was either killed or wounded, then
took command himself, and fought with such reck-
less and desperate spirit, that Gen. Waterbury, seeing
the vessel was about to sink, ordered Bettys and the
remnant of his crew to come on board his vessel.
" Waterbury then stationed Bettys on his quarter-
deck, and gave orders through him until his vessel
was crippled, and the crew mostly killed or wounded,
when the colors were struck to the enemy. After
that action, Bettys went to Canada, and, turning-
traitor, received an ensign's commission in the British
" He then became a spy, and one of the most subtle
enemies of our cause. But our men were wide awake.
Bettys was arrested, tried, and condemned to be hung
at West Point. His old parents and many influential
Whigs entreated that he should be pardoned, promis-
ing that he would mend his life.
" Gen. Washington, you know, never took life where
it could be spared, and so he granted the pardon.
But it was generosity thrown away ; Bettys hated the
Americans the more because they had it in their
power to pardon him, and resolved to make them feel
he could not be humbled and led in that way.
I rf II II I
I'HH i I ill
SEIZURE OF JOSEPH BETTYS
THE TREASON OF BETTYS 1 69
" The Whigs regretted the mercy that had spared
the traitor. Bettys recruited soldiers for the enemy
in the very heart of the country ; captured and carried
off the most zealous patriots, and subjected them to
"Those against whom he had the most hatred had
their houses burned, and often lost their lives. The
British commander paid him well, for he was one of
the best spies, and most faithful messenger, that could
be found. His courage and determination overcame
every obstacle, and encountered every danger that
would have appalled weaker men.
"He proclaimed himself to be a man who carried his
life in his hand, and was as reckless of it as he would
be of that of any who should attempt to catch him. It
was well understood that Bettys meant precisely what
he said, and that he always had a band of refugees
ready to support him in any rascality he might conceive.
"Still, there were some bold men, who had suffered
from Bettys' depredations, and who determined to
catch him at every hazard. Many attempts were
made ; but he eluded his pursuers by his stratagems,
and knowledge of the country, until early in January,
1782, when he was seen in the neighborhood of Balls-
ton, armed, and with snow-shoes on.
170 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Three men, named Cory, Fulmer, and Perkins,
armed themselves and proceeded in pursuit. They
traced Bettys by a roundabout track to the house of a
"They consulted a few minutes, and one of them
reconnoitred to see the exact position of Bettys. The
traitor was at his meal, with his pistols lying on the
table and his rifle resting on his arm, prepared for an
attack though not suspecting foes were near.
" The three men by a sudden effort burst open the
door, rushed upon Bettys, and seized him in such a
manner that he could make no resistance. He was
then pinioned so firmly that to escape was impossible ;
and so the desperado, in spite of all his threats, was a
tame and quiet prisoner, and no one hurt in taking him.
" Bettys then asked leave to smoke, which was
granted ; and he took out his tobacco, with something
else which he threw into the fire. Cory saw this move-
ment, and snatched it out, with a handful of coals.
"It was a small leaden box, about an eighth of an
inch in thickness, containing a paper, written in cipher,
which the men could not read. It was afterwards
found to be a despatch to the British commander at
New York, with an order upon the mayor of that city
for thirty pounds if the despatch was safely delivered.
THE TREASON OF BETTYS 171
" Bettys knew that this paper alone would be evi-
dence enough to hang him, and he offered the men
gold to let him burn it. But they refused his highest
offers. He had a considerable quantity of gold about
him, and he offered them not only that, but much more
if they would allow him to escape ; but their patriotism
could stand gold as well as the gold could stand fire.
" They took Bettys to Albany, where he was tried as
a spy, and hung. The only reward that the three men
ever received was the rifle and pistols of Bettys. The
men who captured Andre were patriotic enough, but
their work was easy compared with that of Cory, Ful-
mer, and Perkins. Yet the names of these heroes are
scarcely ever mentioned, and the story of their daring
exploit is not generally known."
" Did this affair happen before that of Andre ? "
inquired Hand. " If not, these men only imitated the
noble example of Paulding, Williams, and Van Wert."
"It occurred after the capture of Andre," replied
Davenport. " But that takes nothing from the danger
of the attempt, or the amount of the temptation re-
"That is true," replied Hand; "but the capture of
Andre, and the favor with which our countrymen re-
garded his captors, may have stimulated many to patri-
172 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
otic exertions, and thereby have made such deeds so
common as not to receive special notice. I have no
doubt the researches of historians will yet bring to
light many such deeds."
" How the conduct of such men as Arnold and
Bettys contrasts with that of Samuel Adams and his
fellow patriots ! " remarked Warner. " When the first
resistance was made to quartering the British troops in
Boston, Samuel Adams was the leader and mouthpiece
of the patriots, and the royal rulers of Massachusetts
tried every way to induce him to abandon the cause he
" In the first place, they threatened him with severe
punishment. But they couldn't scare him from his
chosen course. Then they flattered and caressed him,
but it was of no effect. At last Gov. Gage resolved
to try whether bribes wouldn't work a change.
" So he sent Col. Fenton to him, as a confidential
messenger. The colonel visited Adams, and stated
his business at length, concluding with a representa-
tion that, by complying, Adams would make his peace
with the king. The stern patriot heard him through,
and then asked him if he would deliver his reply to
Gov. Gage as it should be given. The colonel said he
THE TREASON OF BETTYS 1 73
"Then Adams assumed a determined manner, and
replied, ' I trust I have long since made my peace with
the King of kings. No personal consideration shall
induce me to abandon the righteous cause of my coun-
try. Tell Gov. Gage it is the advice of Samuel Adams
to him, no longer to insult the feelings of an exasper-
ated people.' There was the highest pitch of patriotic
"Ay, Samuel Adams was whole-souled and high-
souled," said Davenport. " Xo one will dispute that,
who knows any thing of his history."
" New England had a host of patriots at the same
period," observed Kinnison. " Many of them did not
possess the talents and energy of Samuel Adams, but
the heart was all right."
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
"Well, gentlemen," said Mr. Hand, "there is a
most important matter, which you have omitted. You
have told us nothing of Bunker Hill's memorable fight,
in which, as Bostonians and friends of liberty, we feel
the deepest interest. Which of you can oblige us by
giving us your recollections of our first great struggle?"
"Mr. Warner was one of Col. Stark's men. He can
tell you all about it," spoke up Colson.
"Ay, if memory serves me," returned Warner, "I
can tell you much of that day's struggle. I joined Col.
Stark's regiment shortly before the battle. I always
admired Stark, and preferred to serve under him. I
suppose you are acquainted with the general featufes of
the battle, and therefore I will not detain you long
with reciting them.
"On the 1 6th of June, 1775, it was determined that
a fortified post should be established at or near Bunker
"A detachment of the army was ordered to advance
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL 1 75
early in the evening of that day, and commence the
erection of a strong work on the heights in the rear of
Charlestown, at that time called Breed's Hill ; but, from
its proximity to Bunker Hill, the battle has taken its
name from the latter eminence, which overlooks it.
" The work was commenced and carried on under
the direction of such engineers as we were able to pro-
cure at that time. It was a square redoubt, the curtains
of which were about sixty or seventy feet in extent, with
an intrenchment, or breastwork, extending fifty or sixty
feet from the northern angle, towards Mystic River.
" In the course of the night, the ramparts had been
raised to the height of six or seven feet, with a small
ditch at their base ; but it was yet in a rude and very
" Being in full view from the northern heights of
Boston, it was discovered by the enemy, as soon as
daylight appeared; and a determination was imme-
diately formed by Gen. Gage, for dislodging our troops
from this new and alarming position. Arrangements
were promptly made for effecting this important object.
"The movements of the British troops, indicating an
attack, were soon discovered ; in consequence of which
orders were immediately issued for the march of a con-
siderable part of our army to re-enforce the detachment
176 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
at the redoubts on Breed's Hill ; but such was the
imperfect state of discipline, the want of knowledge in
military science, and the deficiency of the materials of
war, that the movement of the troops was extremely
irregular and devoid of every thing like concert, — each
regiment advancing according to the opinions, feelings,
or caprice of its commander.
" Col. Stark's regiment was quartered in Medford,
distant about four miles from the point of anticipated
attack. It then consisted of thirteen companies, and
was probably the largest regiment in the army. About
ten o'clock in the morning, he received orders to march.
The regiment being destitute of ammunition, it was
formed in front of a house occupied as an arsenal,
where each man received a gill-cup full of powder,
fifteen balls, and one flint.
"The several captains were then ordered to march
their companies to their respective quarters, and. make
up their powder and ball into cartridges, with the
greatest possible despatch. As there were scarcely
two muskets in a company of equal calibre, it was
necessary to reduce the size of the balls for many of
them ; and as but a small proportion of the men had
cartridge-boxes, the remainder made use of powder
horns and ball-pouches.
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL 177
" After completing the necessary preparations for
action, the regiment formed, and marched about one
o'clock. When it reached Charlestown Neck, we found
two regiments halted, in consequence of a heavy en-
filading fire thrown across it, of round, bar, and chain
shot, from the ' Lively ' frigate, and floating batteries
anchored in Charles River, and a floating battery lying
in the River Mystic. Major M 'Clary went forward, and
observed to the commanders, if they did not intend to
move on, he wished them to open and let our regiment
pass : the latter was immediately done.
" Soon after, the enemy were discovered to have
landed on the shore of Morton's Point, in front of
Breed's Hill, under cover of a tremendous fire of shot
and shells from a battery on Copp's Hill, in Boston,
which had opened on the redoubt at daybreak.
" Major-Gen. Howe and Brig.-Gen. Pigot were the
commanders of the British forces which first landed,
consisting of four battalions of infantry, ten companies
of grenadiers, and ten of light infantry, with a train of
field-artillery. They formed as they disembarked, but
remained in that position until they were re-enforced
by another detachment.
"At this moment the veteran and gallant Col. Stark
harangued his regiment, in a short but animated ad-
178 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
dress ; then directed them to give three cheers, and
make a rapid movement to the rail-fence which ran
from the left, and about forty yards in the rear of the
redoubt, towards Mystic River. Part of the grass, hav-
ing been recently cut, lay in rows and heaps on the
"Another fence was taken up, the rails run through
the one in front, and the hay, mown in the vicinity,
suspended upon them, from the bottom to the top,
which had the appearance of a breastwork, but was,
in fact, no real cover to the men : it, however, served
as a deception on the enemy. This was done by the
direction of the * Committee of Safety,' as I afterwards
heard. That committee exerted itself nobly.
"At the moment our regiment was formed in the
rear of the rail fence, with one other small regiment
from Xew Hampshire, under the command of Col.
Reid, the fire commenced between the left wing of
the British army, commanded by Gen. Howe, and the
troops in the redoubt, under Col. Prescott ; while a
column of the enemy was advancing on our left, on
the shore of Mystic River, with an evident intention
of turning our left wing, and that veteran and most
excellent regiment of Welsh Fusileers, so distinguished
for its gallant conduct in the battle of Minden,
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL 179
advanced in column directly on the rail fence ; when
within eighty or an hundred yards, deployed into line,
with the precision and firmness of troops on parade,
and opened a brisk but regular fire by platoons, which
was returned by a well-directed, rapid, and fatal dis-
charge from our whole line.
"The action soon became general, and very heavy
from right to left. In the course of ten or fifteen
minutes, the enemy gave way at all points, and
retreated in great disorder, leaving a large number of
% dead and wounded on the field.
" The firing ceased for a short time, until the
enemy again formed, advanced, and recommenced a
spirited fire from his whole line. Several attempts
were again made to turn our left ; but the troops
having thrown up a slight stone wall on the bank of
the river and lying down behind it, gave such a deadly
fire, as cut down almost every man of the party op-
posed to them ; while the fire from the redoubt and
rail fence was so well directed and so fatal, especially
to the British officers, that the whole army was com-
pelled a second time to retreat with precipitation and
"At this time the ground occupied by the enemy
was covered with his dead and wounded. Only a few
180 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
small detached parties again advanced, which kept up
a distant, ineffectual, scattering fire, until a strong
re-enforcement arrived from Boston, which advanced
on the southern declivity of the hill, in the rear of
" When this column arrived opposite that angle
of the redoubt which faced Charlestown, it wheeled
by platoons to the right, and advanced directly upon
the redoubt without firing a gun. By this time our
ammunition was exhausted. A few men only had a
"The advancing column made an attempt to carry
the redoubt by assault ; but at the first onset every
man that mounted the parapet was cut down by the
troops within, who had formed on the opposite side,
not being prepared with bayonets to meet the charge.
" The column wavered for a moment, but soon
formed again ; when a forward movement was made
with such spirit and intrepidity as to render the
feeble efforts of a handful of men, without the means
of defence, unavailing ; and they fled through an open
space, in the rear of the redoubt, which had been
left for a gateway.
"At this moment the rear of the British column
advanced round the angle of the redoubt, and threw
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL l8l
in a galling flank-fire upon our troops, as they rushed
from it, which killed and wounded a greater number
than had fallen before during the action.
"The whole of our line immediately after gave
away, and*retreated with rapidity and disorder towards
Bunker Hill ; carrying off as many of the wounded
as possible, so that only thirty-six or thirty-seven
fell into the hands of the enemy, among whom were
Lieut. -Col. Parker and two or three other officers,
who fell in or near the redoubt.
" The whole of the troops now descended the north-
western declivity of Bunker Hill, and recrossed the
Neck. Those of the New Hampshire Line retired
towards Winter Hill, and the others on to Prospect
" Some slight works were thrown up in the course
of the evening ; strong advance pickets were posted
on the roads leading to Charlestown, and the troops,
anticipating an attack, rested on their arms.
" It is a most extraordinary fact, that the British
did not make a single charge during the battle, which,
if attempted, would have been decisive, and fatal to
the Americans, as they did not carry into the field
fifty bayonets. In my company there w r as not one.
" Soon after the commencement of the action, a
1 82 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
detachment from the British forces in Boston was
landed in Charlestown, and within a few moments the
whole town appeared in a blaze. A dense column of
smoke rose to a great height, and, there being a gentle
breeze from the south-west, it hung like a thunder-
cloud over the contending armies. A very few houses
escaped the dreadful conflagration of this devoted
EXPLOITS OF PETER FRANCISCO
11 1 say, men, the story of Bunker Hill is old
enough, and the events of that day have caused enough
dispute already. We know that we taught the red-
coats a good, round lesson, and we shouldn't fight
about particulars. Young men, I will tell you a true
story about a real hero," said Pitts.
" Who was he ? " inquired Hand.
" His name was Peter Francisco, and he was a
trooper in our army," replied Pitts. " Now I'll tell
you what he did.
" While the British troops were spreading havoc
and desolation all around them, by their plundering
and burnings in Virginia, in 1781, Peter Francisco
had been reconnoitring ; and whilst stopping at the
house of a Mr. Wand, in Amelia County, nine of
Tarleton's cavalry, coming up with three negroes, told
him he was a prisoner.
" Seeing himself overpowered by numbers, he made
no resistance ; and, believing him to be very peaceable,
they all went into the house, leaving the paymaster
and Francisco together. The paymaster demanded
184 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
his watch, money, etc., which being delivered to him,
in order to secure his plunder, he put his sword under
his arm, with the hilt behind him.
" While in the act of putting a silver buckle into his
pocket, Francisco, finding so favorable an opportunity
to recover his liberty, stepped one pace in his rear,
drew the sword with force under his arm, and instantly
gave him a blow across the skull.
"His enemy was brave, and though severely wounded,
drew a pistol ; and, in the same moment that he pulled
the trigger, Francisco cut his hand nearly off. The
bullet grazed his side.
" Ben Wand (the man of the house) very ungener-
ously brought out a musket, and gave it to one of the
British soldiers, and told him to make use of that. He
mounted the only horse they could get, and presented
it at his breast. It missed fire.
"Francisco rushed on the muzzle of the gun. A
short struggle ensued, in which the British soldier was
disarmed and wounded. Tarleton's troop of four hun-
dred men were in sight. All was hurry and confusion,
which Francisco increased by repeatedly hallooing, as
loud as he could, 'Come on, my brave boys ! now's your
time ! we will soon despatch these few, and then attack
the main body ! '
EXPLOITS OF PETER FRANCISCO 185
11 The wounded man flew to the troop ; the others
were panic-struck, and fled. Francisco seized Wand,
and would have despatched him, but the poor wretch
begged for his life : he was not only an object of
contempt, but pity. The eight horses that were left
behind, he gave him to conceal.
" Discovering Tarleton had despatched ten more in
pursuit of him, Francisco then made off, and evaded
their vigilance. They stopped to refresh themselves,
and he, like an old fox, doubled, and fell on their rear.
" He went the next day to Wand for his horses :
Wand demanded two for his trouble, and generous
intentions. Finding his situation dangerous, and sur-
rounded by enemies where he ought to have found
friends, Francisco went off with his six horses. He
intended to have avenged himself on Wand at a future
day ; but Providence ordained that Wand should be
his own executioner, for he broke his neck by a fall
from one of the very horses. ,,
" Francisco displayed great courage, daring, and
presence of mind in that scrape," observed Kinnison.
" But I have heard of several encounters quite equal
"Yes, Francisco displayed great presence of mind,
and that's the most valuable quality of a soldier : it
1 86 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
will save him when courage and strength are palsied.
Francisco performed many singular exploits down
South, and had a high reputation. He had much of
the hero in his nature, and it seemed as if dangerous
adventures agreed with him better than easy success.
" He fought bravely in several battles, and was known
to many of the enemy as a man to be shunned. There
wasn't a man among the redcoats stout-hearted and
strong-limbed enough to dare to meet him. But you
said you had heard of several encounters equal to the
one I just narrated," said Pitts.
"I did," replied Kinnison. " Have you ever seen a
painting of the fight between Col. Allan M'Lean and
some British troops ? It used to be a common thing in
"I have seen the picture," said Hand, "and I should
like to hear the story of the affair. It must have been
a desperate fight."
"It was," replied Kinnison. " A man who was inti-
mately acquainted with M'Lean, and heard the account
from his own lips, told me of it. You may boast of
Francisco's exploits, but here was a man who united
the most daring courage and strength with a very
intelligent and quick-working mind."
THE EXPLOIT OF COL. ALLAN M'LEAN
" While the British occupied Philadelphia/' said
Kinnison, "Col. M'Lean was constantly scouring the
upper end of Bucks and Montgomery Counties, to cut
off scouting-parties of the enemy, and intercept their
supplies of provisions.
"Having agreed, for some purpose, to rendezvous
near Shoemakertown, Col. M'Lean ordered his little
band of troopers to follow at some distance, and com-
manded two of them to precede the main body, but
also to keep in his rear ; and, if they discovered an
enemy, to ride up to his side and inform him of it,
without speaking aloud.
" While leisurely approaching the place of rendezvous
in this order, in the early gray of the morning, the two
men directly in his rear, forgetting their orders, sud-
denly called out, ' Colonel, the British ! ' faced about,
and, putting spurs to their horses, were soon out of
" The colonel, looking around, discovered that he was
188 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
in the centre of a powerful ambuscade, into which the
enemy had silently allowed him to pass, without his
observing them. They lined both sides of the road,
and had been stationed there to pick up any straggling
party of the Americans that might chance to pass.
" Immediately on finding they were discovered, a file
of soldiers rose from the side of the highway and fired
at the colonel, but without effect ; and as he put spurs
to his horse, and mounted the roadside into the woods,
the other part of the detachment also fired.
" The colonel miraculously escaped ; but a shot strik-
ing his horse upon the flank, he dashed through the
woods, and in a few minutes reached a parallel road
upon the opposite side of the forest.
" Being familiar with the country, he feared to turn
to the left, as that course led to the city, and he might
be intercepted by another ambuscade. Turning, there-
fore, to the right, his frightened horse carried him
swiftly beyond the reach of those who had fired upon
" All at once, however, on emerging from a piece of
woods, he observed several British troopers stationed
near the roadside, and, directly in sight ahead, a farm-
house, around which he observed a whole troop of the
enemy's cavalry drawn up. He dashed by the troopers
THE EXPLOIT OF COL. ALLAN M'LEAN 189
near him without being molested, they believing he
was on his way to the main body to surrender himself.
" The farmhouse was situated at the intersection of
two roads, presenting but a few avenues by which he
could escape. Nothing daunted by the formidable
array before him, he galloped up to the cross-roads, on
reaching which, he spurred his active horse, turned
suddenly to the right, and was soon fairly out of reach
of their pistols, though as he turned he heard them call
loudly to surrender or die ! A dozen were instantly
in pursuit ; but in a short time they all gave up the
chase except two.
"Col. M'Lean's horse, scared by the first wound he
had ever received, and being a chosen animal, kept
ahead for several miles, while his two pursuers followed
with unwearied eagerness. The pursuit at length waxed
so hot, as the colonel's horse stepped out of a small
brook which crossed the road, his pursuers entered it
at the opposite margin.
" In ascending a little hill, the horses of the three
were greatly exhausted, so much so that neither could
be urged faster than a walk. Occasionally, as one of
the troopers pursued on a little in advance of his com-
panion, the colonel slackened his pace, anxious to be
attacked by one of the two ; but no sooner was his
190 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
willingness discovered, than the other fell back to
"They at length approached so near, that a conver-
sation took place between them ; the troopers calling
out, ' Surrender, you rebel, or we'll cut you in pieces ! '
Suddenly one of them rode up on the right side of the
colonel, and, without drawing his sword, laid hold of
the colonel's collar.
" The latter, to use his own words, ' had pistols upon
which he knew he could depend.' Drawing one from
the holster, he placed it to the heart of his antagonist,
fired, and tumbled him dead on the ground.
"Instantly the other came on his left, with his sword
drawn, and also seized the colonel by the collar of his
coat. A fierce and deadly struggle here ensued, in the
course of which Col. M'Lean was desperately w r ounded
in the back of his left hand, the sword of his antagonist
cutting asunder the veins and tendons.
" Seizing a favorable opportunity, he drew his other
pistol, and, with a steadiness of purpose which appeared
even in his recital of the incident, placed it directly
between the eyes of his adversary, pulled the trigger,
and scattered his brains on every side of the road !
" Fearing that others were in pursuit, he abandoned
his horse in the highway ; and apprehensive, from his
EXPLOIT OF COLONEL M'LEAN
THE EXPLOIT OF COL. ALLAN M'LEAN 191
extreme weakness, that he might die from loss of blood,
he crawled into an adjacent mill-pond, entirely naked,
and at length succeeded in stopping the profuse flow of
blood occasioned by his wound. Soon after, his men
came to his relief. Now, I think, Mr. Pitts, your hero
was at least equalled in Col. M'Lean."
" Yes, it's a difficult and nice matter to say who bears
away the palm. But I do not believe that Col. M'Lean
was surpassed/' said Kinnison. " Col. Henry Lee was
a man of the same mould/' added Colson.
" Ay, he was ; and that reminds me of an adventure
of his which displays his courage and resolution,"
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE
" In the Revolution, a prison was erected at Lan-
caster, Penn., for those redcoats who fell into our hands.
The prisoners were confined in barracks, enclosed with
a stockade, and vigilantly guarded ; but in spite of all
precautions, they often disappeared in an unaccountable
manner, and nothing was heard of them until they
resumed their places in the British army.
" It was presumed that they were aided by American
Tories ; but where suspicion should fall, no one could
conjecture. Gen. Hazen had charge of the post. He
devised a stratagem for detecting the culprits, and
selected Capt. Lee, afterwards Major Lee, a distin-
guished partisan officer, to carry out his plan.
" It was given out that Lee had left the post on
furlough. He, however, having disguised himself as a
British prisoner, was thrown into the prison with the
others. So complete was the disguise, that even the
intendant, familiar with him from long daily intercourse,
did not penetrate it.
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 193
"Had his fellow-prisoners detected him, his history
might have been embraced in the proverb, ' Dead men
tell no tales.'
" For many days he remained in this situation,
making no discoveries whatever. He thought he per-
ceived at times signs of intelligence between the
prisoners and an old woman who sold fruit within the
enclosure. She was known to be deaf and half-witted,
and was therefore no object of suspicion.
" It was known that her son had been disgraced
and punished in the American army ; but she had
never betrayed any malice en that account, and no
one dreamed that she could have the power to do
injury if she possessed the will. Lee watched her
closely, but saw nothing to confirm his suspicions.
Her dwelling was about a mile distant, in a wild
retreat, where she shared her miserable quarters with
a dog and cat.
" One dark stormy night in autumn, Lee was lying
awake at midnight. All at once the door was gently
opened, and a figure moved silently into the room.
It was too dark to observe its motions narrowly, but
he could see that it stooped towards one of the
sleepers, who immediately rose. Next it approached,
and touched him on the shoulder.
194 THE BOSTON' TEA PARTY
" Lee immediately started up. The figure then
allowed a slight gleam from a dark lantern to pass
over his face, and as it did so whispered impatiently,
' Not the man — but come ! ' It then occurred to
Lee that it was the opportunity he desired.
"The unknown whispered to him to keep his place
till another man was called ; but just at that moment
something disturbed him, and, making a signal to Lee
to follow, he moved silently out of the room. They
found the door of the house unbarred, and a small
part of the fence removed, where they passed out
"The sentry had retired to a shelter where he
thought he could guard his post without suffering
from the rain ; but Lee saw his conductors put them-
selves in preparation to silence him if he should
happen to address them. Just without the fence
appeared a stooping figure, wrapped in a red cloak,
and supporting itself with a large stick, which Lee
at once perceived could be no other than the old
" But the most profound silence was observed : a
man came out from a thicket at a little distance, and
joined them, and the whole party moved onward by
the guidance of the old woman. At first they
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 195
frequently stopped to listen, but having heard the
sentinel cry, "All's well!" they seemed re-assured,
and moved with more confidence than before.
"They soon came to her cottage. A table was
spread with some coarse provisions upon it, and a
large jug, which one of the soldiers was about to
seize, when the man who conducted them withheld
him. 'No,' said he, 'we must first proceed to
"The conductor, a middle-aged, harsh-looking man,
was here about to require all present, before he could
conduct them farther, to swear upon the Scriptures
not to make the least attempt at escape, and never
to reveal the circumstances or agents in the proceed-
ing, whatever might befall them.
"But before they had time to take the oath, their
practised ears detected the sound of the alarm-gun ;
and the conductor, directing the party to follow him
in close order, immediately left the house, taking with
him a dark lantern.
" Lee's reflections were not now the most agreeable.
If he were to be compelled to accompany his party
to the British lines in New York, he would be
detected, and hanged as a spy ; and he saw that the
conductor had prepared arms for them, which they
196 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
were to use in taking the life of any one who should
attempt to escape.
"They went on with great despatch, but not without
difficulty. Lee might now have deserted, in this hurry
and alarm ; but he had made no discovery, and he
could not bear to confess that he had not nerve
enough to carry him through.
"They went on, and were concealed in a barn the
whole of the next day. Provisions were brought, and
low whistles and other signs showed that the owner
of the barn was in collusion with his secret guests.
The barn was attached to a small farmhouse. Lee
was so near the house that he could overhear the
conversation which was carried on about the door.
"The morning rose clear; and it was evident from
the inquiries of horsemen, who occasionally galloped
up to the door, that the country was alarmed. The
farmer gave short and surly replies, as if unwilling
to be taken off from his labor ; but the other inmates
of the house were eager in their questions ; and,
from the answers, Lee gathered that the means by
which he and his companions had escaped were as
mysterious as ever.
" The next night, when all was quiet, they resumed
their march, and explained to Lee, that, as he was
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 197
not with them in their conspiracy, and was accidentally
associated with them in their escape, they should
take the precaution to keep him before them, just
behind the guide. He submitted without opposition,
though the arrangement considerably lessened his
chances of escape.
" For several nights they went on in this manner,
being delivered over to different persons from time to
time ; and, as Lee could gather from their whispering
conversations, they were regularly employed on occa-
sions like the present, and well rewarded by the
British for their services.
" Their employment was full of danger; and though
they seemed like desperate men, he could observe that
they never remitted their precautions. They were
concealed days in barns, cellars, cave's made for the
purpose, and similar retreats ; and one day was passed
in a tomb, the dimensions of which had been enlarged,
and the inmates, if there had been any, banished to
make room for the living.
" The burying-grounds were a favorite retreat, and
on more occasions than one they were obliged to resort
to superstitious alarms to remove intruders upon their
path. Their success fully justified the experiment ;
and unpleasantly situated as he was, in the prospect
198 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
of soon being a ghost himself, he could not avoid
laughing at the expedition with which old and young
fled from the fancied apparitions.
" Though the distance of the Delaware was not
great, they had now been twelve days on the road ;
and such was the vigilance and suspicion prevailing
throughout the country, that they almost despaired of
effecting their object. The conductor grew impatient ;
and Lee's companions, at least one of them, became
" There was, as we have said, something unpleasant
to him in the glances of this fellow towards him, which
became more and more fierce as they went on ; but it
did not appear whether it was owing to circumstances,
or actual suspicion.
" It so happened, that, on the twelfth night, Lee was
placed in a barn, while the rest of the party sheltered
themselves in the cellar of a little stone church, where
they could talk and act with more freedom ; both
because the solitude of the church was not often dis-
turbed even on the sabbath, and because even the pro-
prietors did not know that illegal hands had added a
cellar to the conveniences of the building.
" Here they were smoking pipes with great diligence,
and, at intervals not distant, applying a huge canteen
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 199
to their mouths, from which they drank with upturned
faces expressive of solemn satisfaction. While they
were thus engaged, the short soldier asked them, in a
careless way, if they knew whom they had in their
" The others started, and took their pipes from their
mouths to ask him what he meant. ' I mean/ said he,
'that we are honored with the company of Capt. Lee,
of the rebel army. The rascal once punished me, and
I never mistook my man when I had a debt of that
kind to pay/
" The others expressed their disgust at his ferocity,
saying that if, as he said, their companion was an
American officer, all they had to do was to watch him
closely. As he had come among them uninvited, he
must go with them to New York and take the conse-
quences ; but meantime it was their interest not to
seem to suspect him, otherwise he might give an alarm,
whereas it was evidently his intention to go with them
till they were ready to embark for New York.
" The other person persisted in saying that he would
have his revenge with his own hand ; upon which the
conductor, drawing a pistol, declared to him that if he
saw the least attempt to injure Capt. Lee, or any con-
duct which would lead him to suspect that his disguise
200 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
was discovered, he would that moment shoot him
through the head. The soldier put his hand upon his
knife, with an ominous scowl upon his conductor ; but
he restrained himself.
" The next night they went on as usual, but the
manner of their conductor showed that there was more
danger than before ; in fact, he explained to the party
that they were now not far from the Delaware, and
hoped to reach it before midnight. They occasionally
heard the report of a musket, which seemed to indicate
that some movement was going on in the country.
"When they came to the bank there were no traces
of a boat on the waters. Their conductor stood still
for a moment in dismay ; but, recollecting himself, he
said it was possible it might have been secured lower
down the stream ; and, forgetting every thing else, he
directed the larger soldier to accompany him.
" Giving a pistol to the other, he whispered, ' If the
rebel officer attempts to betray us, shoot him ; if not,
you will not, for your own sake, make any noise to
show where we are/ In the same instant they de-
parted, and Lee was left alone with the ruffian.
"He had before suspected that the fellow knew him,
and now doubts were changed to certainty at once.
Dark as it was, it seemed as if fire flashed from his
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 201
eye, now he felt that revenge was within his power.
Lee was as brave as any officer in the army ; but he
was unarmed, and though he was strong, his adversary
was still more powerful.
"While he stood, uncertain what to do, the fellow
seemed enjoying the prospect of revenge, as he looked
on him with a steady eye. Though the officer stood to
appearance unmoved, the sweat rolled in heavy drops
from his brow.
" Lee soon took his resolution, and sprang upon his
adversary with the intention of wresting the pistol
from his hand ; but the other was upon his guard, and
aimed with such precision, that, had the pistol been
charged with a bullet, that moment would have been
" But it seemed that the conductor had trusted to
the sight of his weapons to render them unnecessary,
and had therefore only loaded them with powder. As
it was, the shock threw Lee to the ground ; but fortu-
nately, as the fellow dropped the pistol, it fell where
Lee reached it ; and as his adversary stooped, and was
drawing his knife from his bosom, Lee was able to give
him a stunning blow.
" He immediately threw himself upon the assassin,
and a long and bloody struggle began. They were so
202 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
nearly matched in strength and advantage, that neither
dared unclinch his hold for the sake of grasping the
"The blood gushed from their mouths, and the com-
bat would have probably ended in favor of the assassin
— when steps and voices were heard advancing, and
they found themselves in the hands of a party of coun-
trymen, who were armed for the occasion, and were
scouring the banks of the river. They were forcibly
torn apart, but so exhausted and breathless that
neither could make an explanation ; and they submitted
quietly to their captors.
"The party of the armed countrymen, though they
had succeeded in their attempt, and were sufficiently
triumphant on the occasion, were sorely perplexed how
to dispose of their prisoners. After some discussion,
one of them proposed to throw the decision upon the
wisdom of the nearest magistrate. They accordingly
proceeded with their prisoners to his mansion, about
two miles distant, and called upon him to rise and
attend to business.
" A window was hastily thrown up, and the Justice
put forth his night-capped head, and, with more wrath
than became his dignity, ordered them off. However,
resistance was vain ; he was compelled to rise ; and as
THE ADVENTURE OF MAJOR LEE 203
soon as the prisoners were brought before him, he
ordered them to be taken in irons to the prison at
" Lee improved the opportunity to take the old gen-
tleman aside, and told him who he was, and why he
was thus disguised. The justice only interrupted him
with the occasional inquiry, ' Most done ? ' When he
had finished, the magistrate told him that his story was
very well made, and told in a manner very creditable to
his address ; and that he should give it all the weight
it seemed to require. And Lee's remonstrances were
" As soon as they were fairly lodged in the prison,
Lee prevailed on the jailer to carry a note to Gen.
Lincoln, informing him of his condition. The General
received it as he was dressing in the morning, and
immediately sent one of his aides to the jail.
"That officer could not believe his eyes that he
saw Capt. Lee. His uniform, worn out when he
assumed it, was now hanging in rags about him ; and
he had not been shaved for a fortnight. He wished,
very naturally, to improve his appearance before pre-
senting himself before the secretary of war; but the
orders were peremptory to bring him as he was.
The General loved a joke full well : his laughter was
204 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
hardly exceeded by the report of his own cannon ;
and long and loud did he laugh that day.
"When Capt. Lee returned to Lancaster, he imme-
diately attempted to retrace the ground ; and so
accurate, under all the unfavorable circumstances, had
been his investigation, that he brought to justice
fifteen persons who had aided the escape of British
prisoners. It is hardly necessary to say, to you who
know the fate of Revolutionary officers, that he
received, for his hazardous and effectual service — no
GEN. DANIEL MORGAN
" Speaking of brave men," observed Colson, "I
suppose there is not one of the company who will
doubt the bravery of Gen. Morgan, the hero of so
"The man who does doubt it knows not what
courage is," remarked Ransom.
"Well, I will tell you something about his bravery,"
said Colson. "Men have different ideas of that par-
"This 'thunderbolt of war/ this 'brave Morgan,
who never knew fear,' was, in camp, often wicked and
very profane, but never a disbeliever in religion. He
testified that himself.
" In his latter years, Gen. Morgan professed religion,
and united himself with the Presbyterian Church in
Winchester, Va., under the pastoral care of the Rev.
Dr. Hill, who preached in that house some forty years,
and may now be occasionally heard on Loudon Street,
206 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" His last days were passed in that town ; and while
sinking to the grave, he related to his minister the
experience of his soul. 'People thought/ said he,
* that Daniel Morgan never prayed ; people said old
Morgan never was afraid. People did not know.'
" He then proceeded to relate in his blunt manner,
among many other things, that the night they stormed
Quebec, while waiting in the darkness and storm,
with his men paraded, for the word 'to advance,' he
felt unhappy. The enterprise appeared more than
perilous ; it seemed to him that nothing less than a
miracle could bring them off safe from an encounter
at such an amazing disadvantage.
" He stepped aside, and kneeled by the side of a
cannon, and then most fervently prayed that the Lord
God Almighty would be his shield and defence, for
nothing less than an almighty arm could protect him.
He continued on his knees till the word passed along
the line. t He fully believed that his safety during
that night of peril was from the interposition of
" Again, he said, about the battle of the Cowpens,
which covered him with so much glory as a leader and
a soldier, he had felt afraid to fight Tarleton with
his numerous army flushed with success, and that -he
GEN. DANIEL MORGAN 207
retreated as long as he could, till his men complained
and he could go no farther.
"Drawing up his army in three lines, on the hill-
side, contemplating the scene, — in the distance the
glitter of the advancing enemy, — he trembled for the
fate of the day. Going to the woods in the rear, he
kneeled in an old tree-top, and poured out a prayer to
God for his army, and for himself, and for his country.
" With relieved spirits he returned to the lines,
and in his rough manner cheered them for the fight.;
as he passed along, they answered him bravely. The
terrible carnage that followed the deadly aim of his
lines decided the victory. In a few moments Tarleton
"'Ah!' said he, 'people said old Morgan never
feared ; they thought Morgan never prayed. They did
not know; old Morgan was often miserably afraid.'
And if he had not been, in the circumstances of
amazing responsibility in which he was placed, how
could he have been brave?"
" We seldom hear of a man admitting that he was
ever afraid," observed Hand. "But the man who
never knew fear must be possessed of a small degree
of intelligence, and no sense of responsibility ; neither
of which is creditable.
208 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" Great generals and soldiers, in all ages, have
boasted of their freedom from dread under all circum-
stances. But it is a mere boast. Fear is natural and
useful, and I have ever observed that the man of most
fear is the man of most prudence and forecast. "
" Do you mean to say that the coward is the wisest
man ? " inquired Kinnison, in astonishment.
" Oh, no ! A coward is one who will not grapple
with danger when he meets it, but shrinks and flies.
A man who is conscious of dangers to be met, and
feels a distrust of his own power to meet them, is a
different sort of person," replied Hand.
"Well, that's a very nice distinction," remarked one
of the young men.
"There's truth in what he says, however," said
Ransom. " I have felt fear of consequences many a
time : yet I know that I am not a coward, for my
conduct in the time of battle, and when death was
hailing around me, proves it."
" I can't see any distinction between a coward and
a man of many fears," remarked Davenport ; "though,
of course, I don't know enough of words to argue the
"To make it clearer," replied Hand, "I will assert
that Washington was a man fearful of consequences ;
GEN. DANIEL MORGAN 209
and some of those who refused to go to the aid of the
heroes of Bunker Hill were cowards.''
"It's all plain enough to me," observed Colson.
But the rest of the company, by shakes of the head
and meditative looks, indicated that the distinction
was not perceptible to their mental vision.
THE BATTLE OF ORISKANY
"Well now, my friends, I can tell you of a brave
man who was not fearful enough to be prudent," ob-
served Colson. " I allude to Gen. Herkimer. No man
can dispute his courage ; and it is clear that if he had
possessed more fear of Indian wiles, he would not have
fallen into an ambuscade."
" Will you tell us about the battle in which he fell ? "
"I was about to do so," replied Colson. "Brig.-Gen.
Herkimer was the commander of the militia of Tryon
County, N.Y., when news was received that St. Leger,
with about two thousand men, had invested Fort
" The general immediately issued a proclamation,
calling out all the able-bodied men in the county, and
appointed a place for their rendezvous, and a time for
them to be ready for marching to the relief of Fort
" Learning that Gen. Herkimer was approaching to
the relief of the garrison, and not being disposed to
receive him in his camp, St. Leger detached a body of
THE BATTLE OF ORISKANY 211
Indians and Tories, under Brant and Col. Butler, to
watch his approach, and to . intercept, if possible, his
" The surrounding country afforded every facility for
the practice of the Indian mode of warfare. In the
deep recesses of its forests they were secure from ob-
servation, and to them they could retreat in case they
" Finding that the militia approached in a very
careless manner, Butler determined to attack them by
surprise. He selected a place well fitted for such an
attack. A few miles from the fort there was a deep
ravine sweeping toward the east in a semicircular form,
and having a northern-and-southern direction.
"The bottom of this ravine was marshy, and the
road along which the militia were marching crossed it
by means of a log causeway. The ground thus partly
enclosed by the ravine was elevated and level. Along
the road, on each side of this height of land, Butler
disposed his men.
"About ten o'clock on the morning of the 6th of
August, 1777, the Tryon County militia arrived at this
place without any suspicions of danger. The dark
foliage of the forest-trees, with a thick growth of under-
brush, entirely concealed the enemy from their view.
212 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
"The advanced guard, with about two-thirds of the
whole force, had gained the elevated ground, the
baggage- wagons had descended into the ravine ; Col.
Fisher's regiment was still on the east side, — when
the Indians arose, and with a dreadful yell poured a
destructive fire upon them. The advanced guard was
entirely cut off.
"Those who survived the first fire were immediately
cut down with the tomahawk. The horror of the scene
was increased by the personal appearance of the sav-
ages, who were almost naked, and painted in a most
"They ran down each side, keeping up a constant
fire, and united at the causeway ; thus dividing the
militia into two bodies. The rear regiment, after a
feeble resistance, fled in confusion, and were pursued
by the Indians. They suffered more severely than
they would have done had they stood their ground, or
advanced to the support of the main body in front.
"The latter course would have been attended with
great loss, but might probably have been effected.
The forward division had no alternative but to fight.
Facing out in every direction, they sought shelter
behind the trees, and returned the fire of the enemy
THE BATTLE OF ORISKANY 213
" In the beginning of the battle, the Indians, when-
ever they saw that a gun was fired from behind a tree,
rushed up and tomahawked the person thus firing
before he had time to reload his gun.
" To counteract this, two men were ordered to station
themselves behind one tree, the one reserving his fire
until the Indian ran up. In this way the Indians were
made to suffer severely in return. The fighting had
continued for some time, and the Indians had begun to
give way, when Major Watson, a brother-in-law of Sir
John Johnson, brought up a re-enforcement, consisting
of a detachment of Johnson's "Greens.
"The blood of the Germans boiled with indignation
at the sight of these men. Many of the Greens were
personally known to them. They had fled their country,
and were now returned in arms to subdue it.
" Their presence under any circumstances would have
kindled up the resentment of these militia ; but coming
up as they now did, in aid of a retreating foe, called
into exercise the most bitter feelings of hostility. They
fired upon them as they advanced, and then, rushing
from behind their covers, attacked them with their
bayonets, and those who had none, with the but-end
of their muskets.
"This contest was maintained, hand to hand, for
214 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
nearly half an hour. The Greens made a manful
resistance, but were finally obliged to give way before
the dreadful fury of their assailants, with the loss of
thirty killed upon the spot where they first entered.
Major Watson was wounded and taken prisoner, though
afterwards left upon the field.
" In this assault Col. Cox is said to have been killed.
Possessing an athletic frame, with a daring spirit, he
mingled in the thickest of the fight. His voice could
be distinctly heard, as he cheered on his men or issued
his orders, amid the clashing of arms and the yells of
the contending savages.
"About one o'clock, Adam Helmer, who had been
sent by Gen. Herkimer with a letter to Col. Gansevoort,
announcing his approach, arrived at the fort. At two
o'clock Lieut.-Col. Willet, with two hundred and seven
men, sallied from the fort for the purpose of making a
diversion in favor of Gen. Herkimer, and attacked the
camp of the enemy.
"This engagement lasted about an hour, when the
enemy were driven off with considerable loss. Col.
Willet having thrown out flanking-parties, and ascer-
tained that the retreat was not feigned, ordered his men
to take as much of the spoil as they could remove, and
to destroy the remainder.
THE BATTLE OF ORISKANY 215
"On their return to the fort, above the landing, and
near where the old French fort stood, a party of two
hundred regular troops appeared, and prepared to give
battle. A smart fire of musketry, aided by the cannon
from the fort, soon obliged them to retreat, when Willet
returned into the fort with his spoil, and without the
loss of a single man. A part of that spoil was placed
upon the, walls of the fortress, where it waved in
triumph in sight of the vanquished enemy.
" This timely and well-conducted sally was attended
with complete success. A shower of rain had already
caused the enemy to slacken their fire, when, finding by
reports that their camp was attacked and taken, they
withdrew, and left the militia in possession of the field.
"The Americans lost in killed nearly two hundred,
and about as many wounded and prisoners ; they carried
off between forty and fifty of their wounded. They
encamped the first night upon the ground where old
Fort Schuyler was built.
"Among the wounded was Gen. Herkimer. Early
in the action his leg was fractured by a musket-ball.
The leg was amputated a few days after ; but in conse-
quence of the unfavorable state of the weather, and
want of skill in his surgeons, mortification ensued,
and occasioned his death.
216 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
" On receiving his wound, his horse having been
killed, he directed his saddle to be placed upon a little
hillock of earth, and rested himself upon it. Being
advised to choose a place where he would be less
exposed, he replied, 'I will face the enemy.' Sur-
rounded by a few men, he continued to issue his orders
"In this situation, and in the heat of the battle, he
very deliberately took from his pocket his tinder-box,
and lit his pipe, which he smoked with great composure.
He was certainly to blame for not using greater caution
on his march ; but the coolness and intrepidity which
he exhibited when he found himself ambuscaded aided
materially in restoring order, and in inspiring his men
" His loss was deeply lamented by his friends and by
the inhabitants of Tryon County. The Continental
Congress, in October following, directed that a monu-
ment should be erected to his memory, of the value
of five hundred dollars. But no monument was ever
"'I will face the enemy,'" said Kinnison, repeating
the words of the brave Herkimer.
" Heroic words. But the General should have pos-
sessed more prudence. He had lived long enough in
THE BATTLE OF ORISKANY 217
the neighborhood of the Indians to know their mode of
warfare, and he should have sent out rangers to recon-
noitre his route," remarked Colson.
" However," observed Kinnison, "the enemy didn't
get off whole-skinned. I have heard that they had
more than two hundred killed. It was a hard-fought
battle; and considering all circumstances, no men could
have behaved better than our militia did.
" You see, young men, after they recovered from the
confusion of the first attack, they found they had no
ammunition save what they had in their cartouch-boxes.
Their baggage-wagons were in possession of the enemy,
and they could get no water, which was in great demand
in such warm weather. To fight five or six hours under
such circumstances was certainly noble conduct."
"Another point is to be taken into consideration.
The enemy were much superior in numbers," said
"Of course; that's very important," replied Ranson.
" I suppose there was little mercy shown by either
party. There was too much hateful fury," said Hand.
"You're right," remarked Colson. "Few Tories
received quarters from the militia, and fewer of the
militia asked it of the Tories."
" Herkimer should have been more cautious. Though
218 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
a brave soldier, we cannot consider him a good com-
mander," said Pitts.
" Nay, I think he was a good commander, friend
Pitts," replied Hanson. " He was cool-headed and
skilful in the hottest battle ; and because he neglected
sending out scouts on one occasion, you should not
conclude that imprudence was part of his character."
" But a commander acquainted with Indian warfare,
as Herkimer was, must be considered imprudent if he
neglects such a common precaution as sending out
scouts," observed Kinnison.
"Well, we won't argue the matter now. It's get-
ting late, and we had better break our company," said
"But first we will have a song," replied Hand.
" Heaven knows if we may ever meet again ; and your
company has been too amusing and instructive for us
to part suddenly.
" Gentlemen, this is the Fourth of July ; and surely
it becomes us, as Americans, to honor the memory of
the men who on this day pledged their lives, their
fortunes, and their sacred honors, for the support of our
" I therefore propose, ' The memory of the signers of
the Declaration of Independence. May the brightness
of their fame endure as long as patriotism and the
love of freedom burn in the breasts of mankind ! ' "
Hand now proposed that they should have a song,
and remarked that he knew one appropriate to the
occasion, which he would sing, if the old soldiers were
220 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
not too weary to listen. Of course they expressed it
to be their pleasure that he should sing it, and he
proceeded. " The song," said he, "is called 'The
Last Revolutionary.' " The words were as follows : —
" Oh ! where are they — those iron men,
Who braved the battle's storm of fire,
When war's wild halo filled the glen,
And lit each humble village spire,
When hill sent back the sound to hill,
When might was right, and law was will ?
Oh ! where are they whose manly breasts
Beat back the pride of England's might,
Whose stalwart arm laid low the crests
Of many an old and valiant knight,
When evening came with murderous flame,
And liberty was but a name ?
I see them, in the distance, form
Like spectres on a misty shore ;
Before them rolls the dreadful storm,
And hills send forth their rills of gore;
Around them death with lightning breath
Is twining an immortal wreath.
They conquer ! God of glory, thanks !
They conquer ! Freedom's banner waves
Above Oppression's broken ranks,
And withers o'er her children's graves ;
And loud and long the pealing song
Of jubilee is borne along.
Tis evening, and December's sun
Goes swiftly down behind the wave;
And there I see a gray-haired one,
A special courier to the grave;
He looks around on vale and mound,
Then falls upon his battle-ground.
Beneath him rests the hallowed earth ;
Now changed like him, and still and cold,
The blood that gave young freedom birth
No longer warms the warrior old;
He waves his hand with stern command,
Then dies, the last of Glory's band."
"A very good song, but a very mournful subject/'
observed Kinnison. "And now, friends, we must part."
"The carriages are at the door," said one of the
young men, as the party arose and prepared to descend.
The kindest and best wishes were exchanged between
the old and young men ; and over and over again were
promises made to meet the next year if possible.
At length the veterans were assisted to descend
the stairs. When they reached the door, they found a
crowd collected round it. The sound of the fife and
222 THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
drum had drawn these people there ; and, hearing that
the survivors of the Tea-Party were in the house, they
were very anxious to see them.
As soon as the old men appeared, they jostled
around them, and it was with much difficulty that
they were safely placed in the carriages by their young
friends. Hand and his comrades at last bade the
veterans an affectionate farewell, and the carriages
drove away amid cheers given by the crowd for " The
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